Quotations And Attributions

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This lecture focuses on the criteria used by journalists in determining when to use quotations and attributions.


<ul><li>1.Quotations and Attributions Presented by Brett Atwood </li></ul> <p>2. Types of Quotations Complete direct quotations Partial quotations Indirect/paraphrased quotations 3. Using Direct Quotes Use quote if it is particularly articulate or powerful in the wording Most people do not speak in a way that translates well into a quote 4. Using Direct Quotes Only use a quote if it conveys something that cant be communicated better in your own words If it isnt articulate, then a better strategy is paraphrasing what the subject has told you 5. Direct Quotes If the subject is well known, then a direct quote may be appropriate The more significant the interviewee is, the more likely a reader will be interested Make sure that the quote is used to add a unique angle or credibility to the story 6. Direct Quotes If the quote is quirky or captures the sources personality If it is emotional or highly opinionated 7. Quote Problems Avoid rambling quotes Avoid quotes with too much technical lingo 8. Quoting Accurately If the grammar is poor, then some reporters will clean up the quote This practice varies by publication HOWEVER, if the interview was witnessed by multiple media outlets (example: press conference) then you should leave the quotes alone 9. (sic) If you want to be cautious, then you can use the (sic) notation in your printed quote to notate a grammatical error made by your subject 10. Editing Quotes Never make up a quote Dont add words to a quote Exception: You may clean up the grammar if it is minimal and does not change the context [Be sure to put the changed words in brackets] 11. Holy S---! Most publications shy away from obscenities, unless: It is part of a quote It is relevant for the story or point In many cases, the obscenity is altered with dashes S---! F---! 12. Attribution In most cases, the simple verb said is appropriate since it is neutral Example: This is a quote, the teacher said. There are other verbs you can use, but be conservative 13. Verbs to Avoid Minimize use of attribution verbs that are not neutral , he cried. , she emphasized. , she contended. 14. Identification in Attribution Attribute with the name and job title. AFTER Example: This years textbooks are going to be more expensive, said The Bookie sales manager Mary Smith. BEFORE Example: Mary Smith, a sales manager at The Bookie, said This years textbooks are going to be more expensive. 15. Middle Initials AP Stylebook recommends that you use them. Particularly in hard news stories where they help identify a specific individual, such as casualty lists and stories naming the accused in a crime. This helps to minimize confusion. A middle initial may be dropped if a person does not use one or is publicly known without it: Mickey Mantle (not Mickey C.), the Rev. Billy Graham (not Billy F.). 16. Talking to Sources Many of the best stories will not originate from a news release By nurturing your sources, you will be more likely to get closer to the truth The longer you work with a source, the more likely you are to determine the relevance of the information that comes from that source 17. Sources Some sources will want to remain anonymous If you agree to keep their identity private, it is unethical to reveal their names to anyone 18. Exceptions: Government subpoena If it is determined to jeopardize the national security or is essential is solving a crime Publication policy Due to some problems with reporter integrity, some publications are now requiring reporters to share the identity of the anonymous reporter with their supervising editor 19. Example Josh Wolf was in jail for 226 days for refusing to turn over raw news video footage to authorities This was the longest time a journalist has been imprisoned in the U.S. for protecting source materials 20. Use Caution Be aware of sources that have an axe to grind Do they have an agenda? Are they telling the truth? Are they reliable? Substance abuse = suspicion Do they really have a direct connection to the news event? Be careful of hearsay 21. Gossip Alert A newspaper is not supposed to be a tabloid Verify information provided by your sources Is the information relevant to the news value of the story? Juicy gossip may not equate to news 22. Anonymous Sources On the record Everything can be quoted with attribution Background Everything can be quoted but no attribution Deep background No quotes can be used, no attribution but information can be used Off the record No quotes, no attribution 23. Policies Some publications do not allow anonymous sources Some require you to disclose the info to your superior 24. Off the Record Hotly debated topic Is it ethical to gather info off the record? Should everything be fair game? Can you use information gained off the record without directly quoting the information or source? </p>