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  • ARSITEKTUR DAN ORGANISASI KOMPUTER

    Aditya Wikan Mahastama [email protected]

    UNIV KRISTEN DUTA WACANA – GENAP 1213

    1

    Sejarah Singkat Komputer

    Bus Sistem

  • What was computer like in the past days?in the past days?

  • Compute!

    Compute!Compute! Compute!

  • The Pascaline (1642) Invented by Blaise Pascal at age 19

    Only supports

    addition (+)

  • Using the same principles of

    modern odometer

    Leibniz Stepped Reckoner: + - x /

  • Hollerith Desk (1890)

    Invented by Herman Hollerith

    For the 1890 US census

    Uses punched cards to

    represent input

    numbers

  • Punched card idea? Joseph Marie Jacquard’s power loom (1801)

  • Raw data input

    NUMBERS to calculate

  • THE POWER LOOM

    Draw something

    using matrices The possibility

    to enter input

    sequences

  • THE POWER LOOM

    Rasterisation

    (pixels) Programs

    an Evolution

  • Dawn of

    The DinosaursThe Dinosaurs

  • The Harvard Mark I (1944) Built by Harvard and IBM

    Electro-mechanical computer

    5 bhp

    5 tons

    500 miles of wire

    23-digit number

    + - : 0.3 seconds

    × : 4 seconds

    ÷: 10 seconds

    Got the first bug

  • iki bug-e

  • The Giants

    IBM Stretch (1959)

    ENIAC (1946)

  • The Giants

    Sequential input

    PROGRAMS to compute

  • The Modern Ones

    UNIVAC 1232 (1960)

    DEC PDP-12 (1969)

  • The Modern Ones

    Further advance in

    INPUT/OUTPUT and the need of

    STORAGE

  • Main model for today’s computers

    architecture and organisation

    The IBM PC (1981)

  • Computer’s evolution

  • Shall we begin with

  • What is a bus?What is a bus?

  • A bus is:

    Any connecting lines between two or more

    devices, used as a communication pathway

    It is broadcast in function; can be used by anyone

    connected to itconnected to it

    Does not interfere with power lines

    One bus line can only carry a single bit of data at

    one time

    One bus can only used by a single component at

    one time

  • A bus is:

  • What does a bus look like?What does a bus look like?

  • Is a bunch of BUSWAYS

    Motherboard

  • A bus line can only carry a single bit each time

    So, how to deal with speed?

    Computer uses clock to administer itself

  • A bus line can only carry a single bit each time

    Computer uses clock to administer itself

    Choice to

    speed up the bus:

    Widen the bus lines

    e.g one clock tick = 1 second

  • A bus line can only carry a single bit each time

    Computer uses clock to administer itself

    Choice to

    speed up the bus:

    Set the clock faster raise the frequency (MHz)

    e.g one clock tick = 1/4 second

  • Is there any difference of speed

    between components

    connected to a bus?

    Yes, and there will always be.

    So?

  • Use multiple buses, each to serve an array of

    components of the (nearly) same speed

    Connect different buses with a bridge or a controller

    interface, to synchronize the speed and data

    transmission

    Traditional ISA

    Bus topology

  • Our computer’s

    Bus topology

  • Bus Line Types:

    Data Line

    Digunakan untuk mengirim data (numerik/biner)

    Address LineAddress Line

    Digunakan untuk mengirim alamat komponen tujuan

    (memory/register/input-output/periferal lainnya)

    Control Line

    Digunakan untuk mengirim data instruksi kepada

    alamat ybs; baca data, tuliskan data, interrupt,

    program clock atau instruksi hardware

  • Bus Line Usage Types:

    Dedicated

    Tiap tipe line digunakan untuk mengirim data hanya

    sesuai tipenya

  • Bus Line Usage Types:

    Multiplexed

    Hanya ada satu jenis line yang digunakan untuk

    mengirim berbagai jenis data

  • Bus Line Usage Types:

    Multiplexed

    Hanya ada satu jenis line yang digunakan untuk

    mengirim berbagai jenis data

  • How to deal with turns?

    Centralised

    A component who wants to use bus, report to the

    controller (used to be in CPU, now in

    motherboard), and get a queue number to use the

    busbus

    Distributed

    The controller is embedded in each component,

    so if a component wants to use bus, its controller

    reads the bus’ status. If the bus is ready and idle, it

    claims the turn, and the component uses the bus.

  • What did each component sends & receives?

  • Memory

    • Receives and sends data • Receives addresses (of locations) • Receives control signals

    – Read– Read – Write – Timing

  • Input / Output

    • Output – Receive data from computer – Send data to peripheral

    • Input• Input – Receive data from peripheral – Send data to computer

  • Input / Output

    • Receive control signals from computer • Send control signals to peripherals

    – e.g. spin disk

    • Receive addresses from computer• Receive addresses from computer – e.g. port number to identify peripheral

    • Send interrupt signals (control)

  • CPU / Processor

    • Reads instruction and data • Writes out data (after processing) • Sends control signals to other units • Receives (& acts on) interrupts• Receives (& acts on) interrupts

  • • Topik Berikutnya: Modul Input-Output

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