arabic language prelim
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DESCRIPTIONArabic Language Prelim. Arabic. Arabic : is a Central Semitic language Pronunciation : al-arabiyah Spoken in : Primarily in the Arab states of the Middle East and North Africa; its language of Islam. One of the six official languages of the UN. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Arabic : is a Central Semitic language Pronunciation : al-arabiyahSpoken in : Primarily in the Arab states of the Middle East and North Africa; its language of Islam.
One of the six official languages of the UN.
Total speakers : by more than 280 million people as a first language , and by 250 million more as a second language after English and/or French.*
The Language of the League of Arab States
Arabic is ranked #4 among the most widely spoken languages in the world.Chinese Mandarin885 millionSpanish332English322Arabic235
By 2050, Arabic speakers could outnumber those in English worldwide!
the Language of IslamArabic is the language of Scripture and prayer for 1.2 billion Muslims worldwide.That includes approximately six million Muslims in the US!
a Language for Christiansfor Arab-Americans Arabic is also the language of Scripture and prayer for some 30 million Christians in Africa and the Middle East.Arabic is the mother tongue of some three million people of Arab origin living in the US.
A survey of the Modern Language Association indicated that the number of students studying Arabic at U.S. colleges climbed 92.3% - to 10,584 between 1998 and 2002. The number of undergraduate campuses teaching Arabic jumped 48%, to 233.
the fastest-growing spoken language of study at U.S. colleges and universities.
From Arabic to SpanishArabic words have made their way into many European languages.Some 4,000 words in Spanish, mostly nouns, were borrowed from ArabicAceite, Alfombra, Algodon, Arroz, etc.
From Arabic to Spanish to EnglishFrom Spanish, many Arabic words passed into other languages, including English:admiral, alcohol, algebra, algorithm, almanaccandy, chemistry, coffee, cotton, crimsonmagazine, mascara, mattress, mochasafari, sequin, sherbet, sofa, syrupzenith and zero
Arabic Script A number of other languages use or have used a version of the Arabic script. These include:Persian or Farsi (Iran)Pashto (Afghanistan, Iran, India)Urdu (India & Pakistan)Formerly Turkish
The Classification & History of Arabic
The Classification of ArabicArabic is a Semitic languageIt is related to languages such as: Akkadian (ancient Mesopotamian language) Hebrew & Aramaic Ethiopic
Map of SemiticLanguages
The History of ArabicEvidence for written Arabic before the advent of Islam is quite limited.The first inscription in a language recognized as Arabic dates from 328 CE.Arabic script is probably derived from a cursive form of Nabataean, which is itself derived from Aramaic.
The Origins of Arabic Script
Some Basic Features of ArabicAn alphabet of 28 lettersWritten from right to leftThree long & three short vowels (a, i, u) Short vowels are not normally written except in:The Quran, Bible, childrens books, dictionaries, etc.
Root and pattern systemMost verbs and nouns are derived from a 3-letter root For example from the root D R S come: Darasato studyDarrasato teachDarslesson, classMadrasaschoolMudarristeacher
Varieties of ArabicClassical Modern Standard, Colloquial or Dialects
Classical ArabicThe Quran represents the greatest example of Classical Arabic and set the standard for the language for centuries.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA)Modern Standard Arabic (fus-Ha) is derived from Classical Arabic and was developed in the late 19th-early 20th centuries:To guard the integrity of the Arabic language and preserve it from foreign influencesTo adapt the Arabic language to the needs of modern times, especially to express modern political ideas and technological termsTo unite the Arab world under a common language
Modern Standard Arabic MSA is used for:Print & electronic mediaFormal speechesTV and radio news
Colloquial Arabic (CA) Al-AamyyahCA is the first language of Arabic-speakers.Its the everyday dialect.CA is the ONLY language for many people.
Colloquial Arabic is the mother tongue of the Arab & remains throughout his life the primary medium of interpersonal relationships.Mary Catherine Bateson, Arabic Language Handbook (2003)
Colloquial ArabicThere are over 30 varieties of CA in 5 groups:North African (Morocco-Libya)Egyptian (Egypt & the Sudan)Levantine (Palestine, Leb., Syr. & Jordan)Arabian (Saudi Arabia & the Gulf States)Iraqi
How are you?In Syria, someone may ask: shlonak?In Egypt, you will hear:izzayak? In Morocco:kee deir?
Or as we say in Arabic...Ahlan wa sahlanWELCOME!
Classical Arabic(CA), also known as Qur'anic or Koranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts.
Modern Standard Arabic(MSA): is the direct descendant used today throughout the Arab World in writing and in formal speaking, for example, prepared speeches, some radio broadcasts, and non-entertaining content,*
While the lexis and stylistics of Modern Standard Arabic are different from Classical Arabic, the morphology and syntax (grammar )have remained basically unchanged (though MSA uses a subset of the syntactic structures available in CA). The vernacular dialects (colloquial speech ), however, have changed more dramatically. *
In the Arab world, little distinction is made between CA and MSA, and both are normally called al-fu () in Arabic, meaning 'the clearly spoken one' or the 'language of eloquence'.Because the Qur'an is written in Classical Arabic, the language is considered by most Muslims to be sacred. It is mostly the language in which Muslims recite their prayers, regardless of what language they use in everyday life.*
Q1 : Arabic language spoken in.
Q2: From what family the Arabic language is ?
Q3: What are the three main variants of Arabic?
Q4: What is the dialects Arabic language of Morocco?
*Moroccan Arabic ,Maghrebi
Find the colloquial or dialects Arabic language for any three chosen countries from the Arab world.*
An Arab (Arabic: , Arabi) is a person who identifies as such on ethnic, linguistic or cultural grounds.
The plural form, Arabs ( Al-Arab), refers to the ethnocultural group as a whole; a Semitic people historically residing predominantly in Arabia but today spread across most of the Middle East and many other parts of the world. *
There are over 200 million Arabs worldwide. To be an Arab, is not to come from a particular race or lineage. To be an Arab, like an American, is a cultural trait rather than racial. The Arab world includes Muslims, Christians and Jews. Any person who adopts the Arabic language is typically called an Arab.Arabic is the official and the original language of the Quran, the Islamic holy book. *
* It must be emphasized that there is no one Arab culture or society.
The Arab world is full of rich and diverse communities, groups and cultures.
Differences exist not only among countries, but within countries as well.
An integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief, and behavior that depends upon the capacity for symbolic thought and social learning.
The set of shared attitudes, values, goals, and practices that characterizes an institution, organization or group. *
Arab culture: is an inclusive term that draws together the common themes and overtones found in the Arabic speaking cultures, especially those of the Middle-Eastern countries. This region's distinct Religion, Art, and Food are some of the fundamental features that define Arab culture.*
List down the most famous Arab cultures:Hints:Religion FoodDressBelievesAttitudesMen vs. women
ARAB DRESS ( MEN )
Arab dress for men ranges from the traditional flowing Thobes to blue jeans, T-shirts and western business suits.
The Thobes allow for maximum circulation of air around the body to help keep it cool, and the head dress provides protection from the sun.
Headdress pattern might be an indicator of which tribe, clan, or family the wearer comes from.
While in one village, a tribe or clan might have a unique headdress, in the next town over an unrelated tribe or clan might wear the same headdress.
Examples of Headdress :
Red and /or white Ghetrah.( Middle East)
Historically of Palestinian origin. Black and grey represent Presidential rule and completion of the Hajj.
ARAB DRESS ( WOMEN )
Adherence to traditional dress varies across societies. (More traditionalSaudi Arabia Less traditional Egypt) .
Traditional Arab dress features the full length body cover (Abayah, Jilbab, or Chador) and Veil (Hijab).
Some women cover their faces as well (Niqab).
( In class assignment : list down other different dresses for Arab women )
Example: Rural women, who typically work in the fields, may wear less restrictive garments lighter in color and weight.
Arab women are typically subordinate to men in their societies.
The extent varies by country. The most restrictive conditions exist on the Arabian Peninsula, and the most relaxed conditions exist in the urban areas of Egypt, Syria and Lebanon.
*WOMEN IN ARAB SOCIETIES
The family is the key social unit to an Arab.
This loyalty influences all aspects of an Arabs life.
Arabs honor and respect their family.
They highly value friendships.