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Notes about Egypt, Greece, Rome and Spain in Ancient History.


  • ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)


    Ancient History is a long period of time from writing invention (about 3500 B.C. in Mesopotamia),

    till the Fall of Roman Empire in 476 A.D. The most important civilizations were Egyptian, Greek

    and Roman civilizations.


    Egypt is in the North-East of Africa, near the

    Mediterranean sea. River Nile runs through Egypt from

    North to South. Egyptian people lived in the riversides,

    because these lands were very fertile, and the rest of the

    country was a desert. The river was also the best mean

    of transport (sail boats).


    5.000 years ago, (about 3.000 B.C.) the first Egyptian

    king (Pharaoh) unified all territories next to the Nile.

    Egypt became a very rich country, it was invaded by

    other foreign civilizations, but later (about 1.500 B.C.),

    pharaohs organized a powerful army, and conquered

    more territories in the East. They created a big empire,

    with Tebas as the capital.


    Pharaoh was the name for the Egyptian king.

    He was considered the son of Ra (the solar

    divinity), and was adored like a god. He had

    many councilors to run the country: nobility,

    priests Scribes were people who could write

    and count to control the country economy.

    Everything was pharaohs property (fields,

    animals, crops) scribes used hieroglyphs to

    draw on papyrus or on stones in the temples

    and monuments Ramss II holding his enemies, and a Cartouche with his name.

    1.3.- WORK IN EGYPT.

    Farmers were most of the population: 9 over 10

    Egyptian people work in the fields (men and

    women). Children also worked and helped their

    parents. There were craftsmen: metal-workers,

    potters, basketmakers, weavers They were free

    people. The hardest works were done by slaves

    (construction, mining )

    Wheat crop in Egypt

  • ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)

    1.4.- BELIEVES.

    Egyptian people were polytheistic, and they

    adored forces of Nature (Ra: the sun) some

    animals (Horus: the falcon), and the Pharaoh.

    They used to represent gods with an animal head

    on a human body. The most important were: Ra

    (the sun), Osiris (God of dead people), Isis (god

    of families)

    They built very big temples in honour of their

    gods. They believed in another life after death, so

    they mummified to dead people to preserve them

    for next life (mummies), and they buried some

    pharaohs inside pyramids, with secret passages to

    avoid robbers.

    The Great Pyramid

    Temple of Abu Simbel


    Every Egyptian god had special festivities

    days. There were great processions, and

    dances in the honour of the god. Rich

    people celebrated great parties where men

    and women took part, they listened to

    music, and dancers danced while meals.

    Dancers in the Ancient Egypt.

  • ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)


    Greek people lived in the

    Peloponnese peninsula (in the

    South-East of Europe) and in the

    near isles about 3000 years ago.

    2.1.-GREEK CITIES. .

    The ancient Greek spoke the same

    language and believed in the same

    gods, but they belonged to

    different states. On the other hand,

    they were organized in Little

    independent cities with their own

    government, costumes and even

    own army. They called them polis

    (city-state). The most important

    ones were Sparta and Athens.

    Sparta had a very powerful army, they lived to fight

    at wars. Athens was richer and more brilliant. In the


    century B.C. they built very beautiful

    monuments (the Parthenon in the Acropolis). They

    invented democracy as their type of government,

    and there were a lot of artists and famous

    philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the

    sculptor Phidias)

    Parthenon in the Acropolis of Athens

    Different polis fought among them, but in danger moments they joint each others (forming leagues)

    to fight against invaders. Some polis established colonies in other places next to the Mediterranean

    sea (in the Italic, Iberian peninsulas), like

    Ampurias and Rosas in Catalonia, for trade

    purpose. In these colonies they used the same

    type of government, Greek language, costumes,

    and Greek gods. They developed a Greek navy

    to sail and trade through the Mediterranean.

    Ruins in Ampurias.

    2.2.- WORK.

    Most of Greek people were peasants, craftsmen

    and lots of slaves. Trade was very important. Traders sailed

    to colonies to trade with native people. They traded with

    wine, oil, pottery, perfumes They also exchanged metals,

    salt, linen

    They introduced coins to make easier the exchanges and


    Athenian coins

  • ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)

    Trade in Ancient Greece

    Greek trade ship

    2.3.- BELIEVES.

    Greek people were polytheistic. They

    thought that Gods were like ordinary people,

    but more powerful, immortal and for ever

    young. They also had Heroes like Heracles,

    Ulysses and Achilles, who were children

    from a god and a mortal. They thought that

    some important families and cities were

    created by these characters. Myths were

    stories about these famous characters.

    Some Greek Gods


    Their favourites events were theater performances and sport competitions. The most important

    ones were the Olimpic Games, that took place every four years in Olimpia, in the honour of Zeus,

    where all polis took part, and even wars stopped.

    Athletes in an old Greek vessel Old Olimpic Stadium (Olimpia)

  • ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)

    3.- ANCIENT ROME. In

    Some tribes lived in the middle of the Italic peninsula 2800 years

    ago. In 753 B.C. they founded Rome, where their kings were


    The she-wolf feeding Romulus and Remus.

    3.1.- HISTORY.

    About 500 years B.C., Roman expelled

    their last King and established the

    Republic, for five centuries. Then

    Romans took part in the government,

    they had discussions to make decisions

    in the Senate. During this period Rome

    conquered Italy completely and all

    territories surrounding the Mediterra-

    nean sea. They fought against many

    countries, so they had a great army

    formed by legions.

    In the 1st Century B.C., there was a civil war, and

    finally Julius Caesar was the head of the empire.

    Later, Augustus became the first emperor. During his

    reign JesusChrist was born. The Roman Empire was

    bigger and bigger, and there were long periods of peace.

    Emperors ruled the empire as absolute monarchs

    without considering the point of view of the Senate.

    Roman Empire fell down in 476 A.D., when it was

    defeated by different Barbarian armies (German

    Roman Senate armies).

    3.2.- LIFE IN CITIES.

    Cities were the centre of the social , financial, politic and cultural roman life. People from the

    surroundings went to the city for trading and doing business, going to temples, or going to the

    shows in the circus... Roman cities were surrounded by a fortified wall and their streets were in a

    quadrangular shape. The forum was placed in the centre of the city. In the forum they made

    business and dealt out justice. There were Roman baths (public baths for everybody), theater

    (used for performances), amphitheater (where gladiators fought), Triumphal Arcs, aqueducts

    (to carry water to the city)

    Triumphal Arc in Tarragona

    Roman Baths (Thermas)

  • ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos)

    In the cities, there were very luxurious houses (domus) for rich people and houses with several

    floors for poor people (nsulas). Romans spent a lot of time outside in the streets, and they used to

    buy food in tabernas.

    Domus nsula Roman Villa

    During the Empire Period, Rome became the biggest and most beautiful city in the world. About

    one million people lived there, and goods from all over the empire were taken there. Thousands of

    tradesmen and craftsmen worked there.


    Although cities were the centre of the Roman life, most of people lived in the country working as

    farmers or cattle farmers. Agricultural exploitations were organized around Roman villas. A villa

    was composed of a big building (for the rich owner) and other constructions for animals (stables),