ANCIENT HISTORY. English

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Notes about Egypt, Greece, Rome and Spain in Ancient History.

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<ul><li><p>ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos) </p><p>ANCIENT HISTORY: EGYPT, GREECE &amp; ROME. </p><p>Ancient History is a long period of time from writing invention (about 3500 B.C. in Mesopotamia), </p><p>till the Fall of Roman Empire in 476 A.D. The most important civilizations were Egyptian, Greek </p><p>and Roman civilizations. </p><p> 1.- ANCIENT EGYPT. </p><p>Egypt is in the North-East of Africa, near the </p><p>Mediterranean sea. River Nile runs through Egypt from </p><p>North to South. Egyptian people lived in the riversides, </p><p>because these lands were very fertile, and the rest of the </p><p>country was a desert. The river was also the best mean </p><p>of transport (sail boats). </p><p>1.1.-HISTORY: </p><p>5.000 years ago, (about 3.000 B.C.) the first Egyptian </p><p>king (Pharaoh) unified all territories next to the Nile. </p><p>Egypt became a very rich country, it was invaded by </p><p>other foreign civilizations, but later (about 1.500 B.C.), </p><p>pharaohs organized a powerful army, and conquered </p><p>more territories in the East. They created a big empire, </p><p>with Tebas as the capital. </p><p>1.2.- THE PHARAOH, KING OF EGYPT. </p><p>Pharaoh was the name for the Egyptian king. </p><p>He was considered the son of Ra (the solar </p><p>divinity), and was adored like a god. He had </p><p>many councilors to run the country: nobility, </p><p>priests Scribes were people who could write </p><p>and count to control the country economy. </p><p>Everything was pharaohs property (fields, </p><p>animals, crops) scribes used hieroglyphs to </p><p>draw on papyrus or on stones in the temples </p><p>and monuments Ramss II holding his enemies, and a Cartouche with his name. </p><p>1.3.- WORK IN EGYPT. </p><p>Farmers were most of the population: 9 over 10 </p><p>Egyptian people work in the fields (men and </p><p>women). Children also worked and helped their </p><p>parents. There were craftsmen: metal-workers, </p><p>potters, basketmakers, weavers They were free </p><p>people. The hardest works were done by slaves </p><p>(construction, mining ) </p><p>Wheat crop in Egypt </p></li><li><p>ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos) </p><p>1.4.- BELIEVES. </p><p>Egyptian people were polytheistic, and they </p><p>adored forces of Nature (Ra: the sun) some </p><p>animals (Horus: the falcon), and the Pharaoh. </p><p>They used to represent gods with an animal head </p><p>on a human body. The most important were: Ra </p><p>(the sun), Osiris (God of dead people), Isis (god </p><p>of families) </p><p>They built very big temples in honour of their </p><p>gods. They believed in another life after death, so </p><p>they mummified to dead people to preserve them </p><p>for next life (mummies), and they buried some </p><p>pharaohs inside pyramids, with secret passages to </p><p>avoid robbers. </p><p> The Great Pyramid </p><p>Temple of Abu Simbel </p><p>1.5.- ENTERTAINMENTS. </p><p>Every Egyptian god had special festivities </p><p>days. There were great processions, and </p><p>dances in the honour of the god. Rich </p><p>people celebrated great parties where men </p><p>and women took part, they listened to </p><p>music, and dancers danced while meals. </p><p>Dancers in the Ancient Egypt. </p></li><li><p>ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos) </p><p>2.- ANCIENT GREECE. </p><p>Greek people lived in the </p><p>Peloponnese peninsula (in the </p><p>South-East of Europe) and in the </p><p>near isles about 3000 years ago. </p><p>2.1.-GREEK CITIES. . </p><p>The ancient Greek spoke the same </p><p>language and believed in the same </p><p>gods, but they belonged to </p><p>different states. On the other hand, </p><p>they were organized in Little </p><p>independent cities with their own </p><p>government, costumes and even </p><p>own army. They called them polis </p><p>(city-state). The most important </p><p>ones were Sparta and Athens. </p><p>Sparta had a very powerful army, they lived to fight </p><p>at wars. Athens was richer and more brilliant. In the </p><p>5th</p><p> century B.C. they built very beautiful </p><p>monuments (the Parthenon in the Acropolis). They </p><p>invented democracy as their type of government, </p><p>and there were a lot of artists and famous </p><p>philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the </p><p>sculptor Phidias) </p><p>Parthenon in the Acropolis of Athens </p><p>Different polis fought among them, but in danger moments they joint each others (forming leagues) </p><p>to fight against invaders. Some polis established colonies in other places next to the Mediterranean </p><p>sea (in the Italic, Iberian peninsulas), like </p><p>Ampurias and Rosas in Catalonia, for trade </p><p>purpose. In these colonies they used the same </p><p>type of government, Greek language, costumes, </p><p>and Greek gods. They developed a Greek navy </p><p>to sail and trade through the Mediterranean. </p><p> Ruins in Ampurias. </p><p>2.2.- WORK. </p><p>Most of Greek people were peasants, craftsmen </p><p>and lots of slaves. Trade was very important. Traders sailed </p><p>to colonies to trade with native people. They traded with </p><p>wine, oil, pottery, perfumes They also exchanged metals, </p><p>salt, linen </p><p>They introduced coins to make easier the exchanges and </p><p>trade. </p><p> Athenian coins </p></li><li><p>ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos) </p><p> Trade in Ancient Greece </p><p>Greek trade ship </p><p>2.3.- BELIEVES. </p><p>Greek people were polytheistic. They </p><p>thought that Gods were like ordinary people, </p><p>but more powerful, immortal and for ever </p><p>young. They also had Heroes like Heracles, </p><p>Ulysses and Achilles, who were children </p><p>from a god and a mortal. They thought that </p><p>some important families and cities were </p><p>created by these characters. Myths were </p><p>stories about these famous characters. </p><p> Some Greek Gods </p><p>2.4.- ENTERTAINMENTS. </p><p>Their favourites events were theater performances and sport competitions. The most important </p><p>ones were the Olimpic Games, that took place every four years in Olimpia, in the honour of Zeus, </p><p>where all polis took part, and even wars stopped. </p><p>Athletes in an old Greek vessel Old Olimpic Stadium (Olimpia) </p></li><li><p>ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos) </p><p>3.- ANCIENT ROME. In </p><p>Some tribes lived in the middle of the Italic peninsula 2800 years </p><p>ago. In 753 B.C. they founded Rome, where their kings were </p><p>established. </p><p>The she-wolf feeding Romulus and Remus. </p><p>3.1.- HISTORY. </p><p>About 500 years B.C., Roman expelled </p><p>their last King and established the </p><p>Republic, for five centuries. Then </p><p>Romans took part in the government, </p><p>they had discussions to make decisions </p><p>in the Senate. During this period Rome </p><p>conquered Italy completely and all </p><p>territories surrounding the Mediterra-</p><p>nean sea. They fought against many </p><p>countries, so they had a great army </p><p>formed by legions. </p><p>In the 1st Century B.C., there was a civil war, and </p><p>finally Julius Caesar was the head of the empire. </p><p>Later, Augustus became the first emperor. During his </p><p>reign JesusChrist was born. The Roman Empire was </p><p>bigger and bigger, and there were long periods of peace. </p><p>Emperors ruled the empire as absolute monarchs </p><p>without considering the point of view of the Senate. </p><p>Roman Empire fell down in 476 A.D., when it was </p><p>defeated by different Barbarian armies (German </p><p>Roman Senate armies). </p><p>3.2.- LIFE IN CITIES. </p><p>Cities were the centre of the social , financial, politic and cultural roman life. People from the </p><p>surroundings went to the city for trading and doing business, going to temples, or going to the </p><p>shows in the circus... Roman cities were surrounded by a fortified wall and their streets were in a </p><p>quadrangular shape. The forum was placed in the centre of the city. In the forum they made </p><p>business and dealt out justice. There were Roman baths (public baths for everybody), theater </p><p>(used for performances), amphitheater (where gladiators fought), Triumphal Arcs, aqueducts </p><p>(to carry water to the city) </p><p>Triumphal Arc in Tarragona </p><p> Roman Baths (Thermas) </p></li><li><p>ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos) </p><p>In the cities, there were very luxurious houses (domus) for rich people and houses with several </p><p>floors for poor people (nsulas). Romans spent a lot of time outside in the streets, and they used to </p><p>buy food in tabernas. </p><p>Domus nsula Roman Villa </p><p>During the Empire Period, Rome became the biggest and most beautiful city in the world. About </p><p>one million people lived there, and goods from all over the empire were taken there. Thousands of </p><p>tradesmen and craftsmen worked there. </p><p>3.3.- LIFE IN THE COUNTRY. </p><p>Although cities were the centre of the Roman life, most of people lived in the country working as </p><p>farmers or cattle farmers. Agricultural exploitations were organized around Roman villas. A villa </p><p>was composed of a big building (for the rich owner) and other constructions for animals (stables), </p><p>workshops (for smiths, carpenters) and houses for slaves. Romans invented mills moved by </p><p>animals, the Roman plough, oil press, watering techniques, fertilizers </p></li><li><p>ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos) </p><p>3.4.- PROVINCES. </p><p>Romans divided the empire into provinces. </p><p>Each province was ruled from Rome, and it had </p><p>the same laws, currency, and the same </p><p>language: latin. </p><p>In every province they built cities, military </p><p>camps to maintain order and control revolts. </p><p>Roman paved roads came from Rome to </p><p>every province in the empire. Roman paved road </p><p>3.5.- ROMAN SOCIETY. </p><p>There were two kinds of people: free people </p><p>and slaves. </p><p>Free people: </p><p>a.- Patricians controlled the government with </p><p>the Senate. They had the politic, military and </p><p>financial power. They had villas and domus. </p><p>b.-Plebeians were free but they had to work. </p><p>They were merchants, artisans, soldiers </p><p>c.- Slaves didnt have any rights, they could Patricians soldier and slave plebeians </p><p>be sold and be bought, they did every kind of works from the hardest in the mines or in the country </p><p>to domestic workers. In some occasions they could buy their own liberty. </p><p>3.6.- ENTERTAINMENTS. </p><p>Their favourite shows were gladiators fights in the </p><p>amphitheatre, chariot racing in the circus. They also </p><p>went to the theatre and thermas (Roman baths) to take a </p><p>bath, do some exercise and chat with friends. Patricians </p><p>gave luxurious parties to show their power. </p><p> Roman Coliseum </p><p>3.6.- BELIEVES. </p><p>.- Roman were polytheist. They changed the name of Greek gods into Romans, and they adored </p><p>them and built temples into their honour. </p><p>.- Apart of that, every family had a kind of </p><p>protector god (Domestic Lares) that had a </p><p>shrine in every house. </p><p>.- The Emperor was also considered </p><p>as a god. </p><p>.- About the middle of 1st century A.D., </p><p>Christian religion started to spread, but </p><p>christians were persecuted because of they </p><p>didnt accept the emperor as a god. But </p><p>their number was bigger and bigger and in </p><p>the 4th</p><p> century A.D. this new religion was Correspondence between Greek and Roman gods. </p><p>accepted, and later Christianism became the </p><p>empire official religion. </p></li><li><p>ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos) </p><p>4.- SPAIN IN THE ANCIENT AGE. </p><p>4.1.- PRE-ROMAN CULTURES: CELTIC AND IBERIAN. </p><p>Some nomads tribes lived in the Iberian peninsula </p><p>about a million years ago, they hunted and collected </p><p>fruits and vegetables (paleolithic). Later, about 2000 </p><p>years ago, they became sedentaries, farmers </p><p>(neolithic). </p><p>2.000 years B.C. they started to make metal tools, </p><p>and they organized bigger groups of people ruled by </p><p>a chief (Metals Age). During the 1st millennium, </p><p>some other cultures came to the peninsula. Celtic </p><p>and Iberian people were living here. Later </p><p>Phoenician and Greek came through the </p><p>Mediterranean sea. They trade with the inhabitants. </p><p>These people had a very developed culture, they </p><p>built important cities like Cadiz, Ampurias They introduced writing, so Ancient Age started. </p><p>4.2. THE CELTS. </p><p>They came from Central Europe, and </p><p>they lived in the North and centre of </p><p>the peninsula. </p><p>They lived in roundhouses located on </p><p>high places. They were made of clay-</p><p>bricks and stones and thick thatch. In </p><p>the centre of the village there were </p><p>some buildings for meetings and </p><p>religious purposes. They were </p><p>herders and farmers. They were also </p><p>expert metal-workers, they made </p><p>jewellery, weapons and tools. </p><p>They didnt know writing or coin. </p><p>There were different tribes like </p><p>Cantabri, Astures, Gallaeci </p><p> Roundhouse </p><p>4.3.- THE IBERIANS. Lady of Elche </p><p>They lived in the east and south of the peninsula. Their villages were </p><p>surrounded by a fortified wall, they had a main street and a square </p><p>for meetings. They were warriors, herders, farmers, craftsmen, </p><p>merchants, metal-workers </p><p>They trade with other Mediterranean cultures. </p><p>They used coins, plough, wine and olive oil. </p><p>They created their own writing system. They </p><p>cremated their corpses in cemeteries, and put </p><p>the ashes into an urn. They buried it with his </p><p>grave goods (jewelry, weapons) . </p><p>Iberian falcata </p></li><li><p>ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos) </p><p>4.4.- HISPANIA, A ROMAN PROVINCE. </p><p>Roman conquered the peninsula. They wanted to control the Mediterranean sea, so they fought </p><p>against Carthaginians. Carghaginians lived in the north of Africa, and came to the Peninsula. </p><p>They wanted gold, silver and soldiers and they founded Cartagena e Ibiza. </p><p>Roman came to the Iberian peninsula, they landed at Ampurias, and later they conquered the </p><p>Meseta and at the end the north part of the peninsula. The emperor Augustus divided Hispania in </p><p>three provinces. </p><p>4.5.- LA ROMANIZACIN. </p><p>The peninsula became a part of the Roman </p><p>Empire. It was called Hispania. </p><p>People adopted Roman customs (coins, houses, clothes, religion) and their </p><p>language: Latin. </p><p>They were ruled by Roman law, and the </p><p>governor was a Roman person. </p><p>Rome used its army to conquer Hispania. Their soldiers were called </p><p>legionaries and they formed the Roman Legions. They built </p><p>fortified camps. Later these camps were transformed into Roman </p><p>cities. Native people were mixing with Romans, so they became part </p><p>of the Roman army, they worked in fields, trade, construction and </p><p>they even were emperors like Trajan and Hadrian. . </p><p>Roman built lots of buildings and public works like aqueducts </p><p>(Segovia), theaters (Mrida, Segbriga), bridges (Alcntara in </p><p>Toledo), Triumphal Arches (Bara Arch in Tarragona). They </p><p>also founded lots of cities: Lugo, Len, Segbriga . </p><p>Roman legionary </p><p>Alcntara Bridge (Toledo) </p><p> Aqueduct in Segovia </p><p>Ruins of Roman Theatre Segbriga (Cuenca) </p></li><li><p>ANCIENT HISTORY CEIP Santa Ana (Madridejos) </p><p>ANCIENT HISTORY: GLOSARY-VOCABULARY: </p><p>Riverside: oril...</p></li></ul>