ancient greece history
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ANCIENT GREECE HISTORY
MINOANS AND MIYCEAEANS
Minoans culture appeared between 3000 and 1400 BC. The Minoans civilization was born in Crete. His name was discovered by Sir Arthus Evans.The Minoans grew wheat. The civilization was destroyed due to an earhquake. The three palaces were important Minoan Knossos,Maila and Phaistos.Mycenaean culture developed in chalk. Their king was king Minos. Miyceaeans Greece ended up on Bolcase. After the Miyceaeans came the Dorians
Archaic Greece not had kings. Oligarchy dominaded government. Had Greeks polled so they started to send Greek to build cities in Europe. Founded Crete and Greece. His soldiers were called Persian and the aristocracy who ruled with the support of poor people called oligarchy.
Cleisthenes was an Athenian politician who introduced the democracy govermment in ancient Greece. They met in monarchies. The institution chosen by the lot was the Assembly
In 490 BC the Persians attacked Athens. Everybody was very frightened, because the Persians were great fighters. Darius I of Persia, King of Kings led them. All the men in Athens marched out to meet the Persians at Marathon. They thought they would lose. But the Athenians won.
BATTLE OF MARATHON
BATTLES OF THERMOPYLAE, SALAMIS AND PLATAEA
In 480 BC the Persians attacked again.This time with their king Xerxes. The cities in Greece banded together and formed a league to fight the Persians. But the Persians were too much , so they lost. This battle is called Thermopylae. At the following battles they won. These battles were Salamis and Platea.
The Athenians convinced the other Greek cities that they needed to keep the strong Greek navy together in case the Persians came back again. At first everyone thought this was a good idea, except the Spartans, who refused. But the Persians did not come back. After a while, some of the cities refused. But the Athenians used their big navy to make the other cities keep sending money.
The Athenians also spent some of the money on their own city. No Athenians had to pay taxes anymore. They used the money from the other cities to build great temples like the Parthenon.
The other cities in Greece were angry.Some cities took sides with Athens, others with Sparta. There was a big war, from 431 BC to 404 BC. This is called the Peloponnesian War. But finally, with the help of the Persians, the Spartans won and the Athenians lost.
In the north of Greece, in a country called Macedon, King Philip had noticed that the Greeks were very weak , so he attacked the Greek city-states and conquered them. Philip was assassinated in 336 BC.
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
Philip's son, Alexander, became king, and he also ruled Greece. Alexander was only 20 when he became king. He not only held onto Greece, he also took a big army of Greeks and Macedonians, attacked the Persian Empire and he conquered it. He conquered first Turkey, then Phoenicia, then Israel, then Egypt, then further east all the way to Afghanistan and India.
In India Alexander and his troops turned back. But a lot of the soldiers died on the way back, and in 323 BC, Alexander himself died of a fever, in Babylon. He was 33 years old.
Alexander died without any sons old enough to rule, and so he divided his empire in three main parts: Egypt, which was ruled by a man named Ptolemy, Seleucia , which was ruled by a man named Seleucus, and Macedon and Greece. These men were his generals.
EGYPT, SELEUCIA, MACEDONE AND GREECE.
Although these three kingdoms often fought each other, still the Hellenistic period was one of prosperity and learning. A great university was founded at Alexandria, in Egypt.
In the Late Bronze Age there were monarchies.After this period monarchies dissapeared but in Sparta the monarchy survived. The spartan monarchy had two kings. One king might stay home, while the other was away fighting battles. Fighting battles was what the Spartans did best. Greeks said that in a battle one Spartan was worth several other men.
-Right after the Dark Ages. Between 1000 and 500 B.C.
-Oligarchy means the rule of the few, and those few are generally the people who are richer and more powerful than the others, what you might call the aristocrats or the nobles.
-Were generally bad for the poor, but they are pretty good for women, at least for rich women from powerful families.
-For a person to be part of the oligarchy,sometimes they may be elected, and sometimes they are born into their position, and at other times you might have to have a certain amount of money or land in order to be in the council.This group of people meets every so often - every week or every month-In these meetings to decide important questions, and to appoint somebody to deal with things
-The tyrannies develop at the end of Archaic Greece and beginning of Classical Greece. 650-400 B.C.
-The deference between oligarchy and tyranny is: in an oligarchy, each of the aristocrats is always trying to get more power than the others. But the other aristocrats keep them from doing it.But if one of the aristocrats thinks of asking for help from the poor people, he can get ahead that way, and may make himself tyrant. So a tyrant is like a king, but a king who does not have the law or religion behind him, and only rules because the poor people support him. Tyrants are something like Mafia bosses like the Godfather.
-The oligarchies hated tyrannies
-The tyrants had promised the poor people that he would do good things for them, so they would support him. Usually the tyrant promised one or two of these things: 1) cancellation of debts 2) abolition of debt-bondage 3) redistribution of land.
-In English today, tyrant means a bad king, because the aristocrats hated tyrants, and in ancient Greece only the aristocrats could write.
-Pisistratus and Syracuse were two tyrants
-Democracy means the rule of the people
-The democracy works where each individual person has a vote about what to do.
-Democracy began in Athens in 510 BC
-The people that participated in the political life of the Greek city-states could vote were free adult male citizens who owned land or owned their own houses (that is, the richer people).
-Most democracies sooner or later ended up choosing a few men who would do most of the voting, and the rest only came when there was a really important vote. In Athens this took a year.
A city-state was an independently ruled city with its own laws,Customs, money, and army.
The name of the Greek city-state is polis.
Name some Greek city- states is Mycenae, Sparta, Pylos, Athens, Corinth, Ithaca, and so on.
DIFFERENT GREEK AND ANIMALS
The Greek said that people were different from animals because animals ate their foot raw, and people ate theirs cooked and people have rational thought, but animals do not.
DIFFERENT THE MEN AND WOMEN
Many Greek thought really only men had rational thought, and women were more irrational, like animals. Because of this, boys went to school in ancient Greece, but girls generally stayed at home with their families.
The Greek called all foreigners barbarians, even if they were very civilized like the Egyptians or the Persians.
The two most important groups of citizens are teenaged boys and young men.
Teenaged boys were those who had passed puberty but had not yet grown beards say about 15-20 years old, while young men had grown beards but were not yet married saya bout 20-30 years old.
DIFFERENT MEN AND SCLAVE
The Greek made this distinction less than others, because a slave can become free, and a free person can become a slave.
The main activities of the city took place in the Agora, which was the central marketplace in most Greek city-state.
FAMOUS GREEK PEOPLE
ALEXANDER THE GREAT
He was the son of Philip of macedonia.Alexander, at the age of twenty, conquered the Persian Empire.After the battle, he took care to help the families of his dead soldiers and visited all of his wounded soldiers. He won the loyalty of his troops from his actians.Alexander proved himself to be an incredible military commander. When he died, of a fever at 33 years old, his empire was ruled by Ptolemy and Seleuc.
Aristotle 384 BC-March 7,322 BC was an ancient Greek philosopher, student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great.
Draco was a Greek lawmaker who introduced the first written code of law in ancient Greek. Dracos code included very severe laws. Under his system of law, almost all crimes called for the death penalty, even very minor offences. His laws were unpopular and most of them were rewritten by his successor, Solom.
Both the dates and places of his birth and death are unknown.
Pericles was born into an aristocratic family in 494 B.C. He was a statesman and general of Athens. In addition, he instituted for public service and jury duty.
Pericles is also famous for the rebuilding of the Acropolis.
Solon was a democratic reformer of Athens. He creat