ananda coomaraswamy - parts of a vina
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The Parts of a V#n# Ananda K. Coomaraswamy Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 50. (1930), pp. 244-253.Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0003-0279%281930%2950%3C244%3ATPOAV%3E2.0.CO%3B2-G Journal of the American Oriental Society is currently published by American Oriental Society.
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THE PARTS O F A VPNA
IN MONIEE-WILIA~WS' Sanskrit Dictionary, s. v. vind we find a description only of the modern instrument consisting of a long, narrow sounding board with a gourd a t either end (in the southern form there is only one gourd), seven strings, and nineteen frets. This type of vinB, in use a t the present day, is also illustrated in numerous Rajput and Mughal paintings, and these take us back to the early seventeenth or late sixteenth century. Decidedly earlier than this is a representation in a fresco a t EliirB but this cannot possibly be of earlier than Rlstrakiita date, and before this time we cannot point t o any illustration of an instrument resembling the modern vina. In any case, a vina of the modern type, but simpler form, is constantly represented, in Pkla sculptures, as held i n the hands of Sarasvati.ln Possibly, too, the anuttclncildbu-vind of H., 8 145, a " rounded-gourd " may have been of the later sort. On the other hand, we have a very large number of representations, ranging backward from the late Gupta period to the beginning of the second century 11. C . (Bhkjii and B h a r h ~ t ) n which the vinii i~ is consistently depicted as a kind of harp.2a It is obviously with reference to this harp-vFF;i. (German " Bogenharfe") that the word as it occurs i n classical Sanskrit and i n Pali and early Prakrit literature is used. We may safely assume that the same harp-ving is referred to i n the still earlier Vedic literature; partly because of the a priori probability of a continuity of the tradition backward, partly because harps of various kinds actually existed i n very early times (as recent discoveries at Ur have demon3, 1926, p. 5 and fig. 3. laBhattasali, N. K., Iconography of the Buddhist and Brahmanical Images in the Daeca Museum, pp. 181 ff. and P1. LXIII. a Thus certainly three centuries older than suggested by Sachs, 139, and long before the time of the Periplus. The latest representation of the old Indian harp-vinii I am able to cite is held by Sarasvati, who is associated with V i g ~ uin a sculpture from LakgmfanakBti, dateable about the eighth century A. 1). (Bhattasali, Zoo. oit., p. 87 and PI. XXXII.)
* See Ostasiatische Zeitschrift, N. F.
I.'iu. . . i
The old Indian vinL in use.
The Parts of a V i f l
strated), and also because the Aranyaka sources give us the same terms and imply the same forms as those later current. It is true that in some places various kinds of vinii are mentioned (cf. Keith, I, p. viii, note 2, and s. v. tantra below) ; but aside from this fact, the descriptions and actual representations are so consistent and so much in agreement that we are justified in speaking of the harpvinii here described as the old Indian vina. This old Indian vinii is a harp without a post; i t has a hollow belly covered with a board or stretched leather; this belly is broader towards the back, where its end is rounded, and tapers toward the front, where i t is continued into an upstanding curved arm, which often terminates in a little scroll like the head of a violin. The seven strings, one above the other, are stretched from this arm to the belly, forming as i t were arcs to the crescent of the whole frame; they pass through holes in the flat surface (wooden or parchment sounding board) of the belly and must pass through and be fastened to its rounded under side. The weight of the instrument lies well back; i t is held under the left arm or in the lap, with its thin arm projecting forwards and upwards. From [email protected]$aka, I (M. p. Ti'),where the heroine is baddhazlinii, " girt with a viqii " it would appear that the VInL was, or at least might be, supported by a kind of sling (cf. s. v. patta, below), as apparently indicated in our Plate, fig. 2. This old Indian [email protected] was used equally by men and women, either as a solo instrument (e. g. Guttila Jdtaka), or as an accompaniment to song, as by Paiicasikha on the well-known occasion of Indra's visit to the B ~ d d h a ) but even more often to accompany dancing (e. g. ,~ Div. 553, where queen Candraprabhii nytyati, and Aus. Erz., 31, where the queen a a c c ~ i ) ,whether dramatic or processional. I n representations of dancing scenes it is not uncommon to find two vinBs in use together; sometimes also with an ensemble of flutes and drums, and (or) another stringed instrument, more like a European mandolin or Japanese biwa, described at the end of this article. The old Indian vina seems to have passed out of use altogether after the Gupta period; but the modern Burmese sauri which "has a boat-shaped body of wood, with a skin stretched over it for a sounding board ",4 and thirteen silk strings, is very like it.- a
Sakka-paAha Suttanta (Digha Nikaya, 11, 2 6 5 ) ; Avadana Sataka, story 17. 'Ferrars, Burma, 1900, p. 176; Sachs, f g 96 (after Scott O'Connor). i.
A m a d K. Coomaraswamy
The accompanying illustration is a restored representation of the old Indian vinl, based on numerous representations in the early reliefs (esp. Bharhut, Amargvati, Pawiiytt) .
The old Indian h a r p - v i ~ 8 .
The designations of the various parts of the old Indian vintt will now be dealt with in alphabetical order.51, Ambhana (Skr.), the belly. Hit. Hr., 1 1 2, 5; BHr., VIII, 9 (compared t o the belly of the human body). Evidently the boat-shaped, hollow not merely the sounding board a s rendered by body of the
Abbreviations : Zit. Ar. : Bitareqa Branyaka. Aus. Erz.: Jacobi, Ausgewiihlte Erzahlungen in Michcirdshtri, Leipzig, 1886 ( = Devendra, Uttaradhyayana T i k a ). CT.: Cowell and Thomas, trans. of H., 1897. DhA. : Dhammapada Atthakathic. Div.: Divydvaddna, edited by Cowell and Neill. H. : Barsacarita of Bsna. Jnt.: Jictaka, edited by Fausboll. Keith, 1 : Keith, A. B., Sicfikhdyana Hra%yaka, 1908. , 2 : -------- Aitareya Branyaka, 1909. , M.: Quackenbos, Sanskrit Poems of Maytira, 1917. Miln. : Milindapafiha (Trenckner ) . NS.: Bhicratiga N d t y a Sastra. Sachs: Die Musikeninstrumente Zndiens und Indonesiens, Berlin, 1915. SHr. : Sicfikhdyana Branyaka. SN.: Namyutta hTik&qa (ed. Feer, P. T. 8.). BBS. : SQfikhdyana BrQuta Btitra. V . : Vicsavadattic of Subandhu, trans. by Gray, 1913.
The Parts of a V i p i
Keith, 2, 254. Synonyms: don%,donikd ( P a l i ) , Miln. 53. SN., IV, 197; bhdnda, Manu, X, 49. Beds (Skr.), the hollow body of the harp, hence the harp itself. Manu, X, 49, bhwda-vddana. Synonym : avnbhana, doni. Carma (Skr.), camma ( P a l i ) , leather, viz. the parchment sounding board. Iiit. iir., 111, 2, 6 ; Blir., VIII, 9 ("with a hairy skin they used to cover vinds ") . Miln. 53. SN., IV, 197. Cf. godhd-parivddentikd, " sounding lizard skin " (of a h a r p ? ) , Jgt. VI, 580. Synonym: pokkhara. Chidrani (Skr.), chidddni ( P a l i ) , holes. Blir., VIII, 9. The holes in the sounding board, through which the strings pass. These holes, each ringed like an eyelet, can be clearly seen in a Bharhut pillar relief, unpublished, but in the Indian Museum, Calcutta; they are taken from this source in the restored sketch, Fig. 1. I n Jutaka No. 432 ( J B t . 111, 607), a certain actor or dancer ( n a t a ) fastens his big harp (mahdninam) about his neck and enters a river. The water enters the holes of the harp (vindchiddehi pdvisi), and then its weight causes him to sink. I n DhA., I , 215 a serpent is inserted through one of the holes (chidda) in the sounding board (pokkhara) of a hatthikanta-vind, in order t h a t i t may later emerge and bite the owner of the instrument (Story of Udena; for an Amarsvati illustration, see Rev. des Arts Asiatiques, VI, pp. 101-2, and P1. XXXII ) . D e d a (Skr.), danda, dandaka ( P a l i ) , the arm of the [email protected], forming with the ambhana the whole frame.6 [email protected], VII (hf. p. 7 7 ) , vinidanda (sic) compared to a "raised quivering arm "; SN., VI, 197; Miln. 53. I n Huqacarita, 252 (H.. 223), vinddandah kopdbhighdtqu, a man is compared to the arm of a v i n j by reason of the many cudgellings he has reccived. It would seem to be implied that not only the strings, but also the arm of the instrument might be intentionally struck with the plectrum (kona, vddana) ; this would produce a different kind of sound, and i t would be possible in this way a t least to emphasize the tdla. This possibility is supported by the Guttila Jataka episode (Jut., 11, 253) where the competing players break successively all the strings of the vinti., and play finally on the arm alone (suddhadandaka). The arm of the vinii is proverbially bent (not "broken " a s rendered in Jst., trans., 11, 156) like a hunchback or a n old man (JXt., 11, 225, uinddaqdako viya sa7hku?ito). >At., 11, 226 resumes sarhkutito . . . chinmtantivipa 'ti which the Commentator interprets a s "bent like the body and arm (sadoniko vigdda?~dako) of a vinl with broken strings "; Thus the rendering of danda alone as "frame " in S. B. E. XXXV, 84, is too comprehensive. Cf. the use of danda in Subandhu, VBsavadattd, 266-7 (V., pp. 127, 187) ; and the term daqdahasta used iconographically to designate the straight upper left arm of a Natariija image.
and indeed, the curved shape of the whole frame would be still more conspicuous when the strings were broken. 1, The A v d n a Sataka, story 1 (Speyer, Bibl. Buddh., 1 1 1902, I , 95, 11, cited by Sachs) specifies Paficaiikha's vin2 as a vGidtZryadanda v w d ; in this case I hesitate to accept the meaning "beryl " or " lapis " for the material of the arm.7 I n Dh. A. 1.433 the same vini has its dapda made of veluva (vilva) wood. A synonym is vamsa, occurring in Aus. Erz., 56, and rightly identified with datzdaka by Meyer, Hindu Tales, 196. Here the varitsa is said to be asuddha, "not clear ", and thois defect in the particular instrument is found to be due to the presence of a small stone in the v ~ h s a . Thus the arm of a v i ~ 6s hollow, and no doubt this ~ i hollow is continuous with t h a t of the belly; perhaps, a s the word vamsa itself suggests, the arm may sometimes have been made of bamboo. In any case the use of vamsa here goes far t o explain SAr., VIII, 9, where we have " A s this (human harp, i. e., body) has a vamda, so that divine harp has a d-da"; in other words, the human spine and the arm of the vig6 are correlated, inasmuch as both are firm upstanding elements. It will be observed that suddha and asuddha applied to danda a s cited above are not corresponding terms; the suddhu danda is " nothing but the arm of the vin%", the asuddha danda is one that does not ring true. Dhdtu (Skr. and Pkt.), style of harp playing. There are four such styles, of which one, the vyahjanadh8tu has ten variations (NS., 29, 52 and PmyadarSikQ, 111, 10 ) . D w i , donik& ( P a l i ) , the belly or body of the vina, synonym of a m b h w a . SN. IV., 197; Miln., 53; Jat., 11, 226 (sadoniko v5?zdda?dako, " b d y and arm of the vinL ", i. e. the whole frame. Koca (Skr. and P a l i ) , plectrum. H., 84, "he taught the vin%, the plectrum firmly grasped In his hand ". Miln. 53. S. N., IV, 197. hfonier Williams cites [email protected] I T , 71, 26 and 81, which I have not consulted. Synonym: vcidana. I n Keith 1, p. viii, vddini, H., p. 63, kona and 8. B. X X X V , 84, kona, the terms are mistranslated "bow ", B. and Monier TTTilliams s. v. kona has " fiddle-stick " a s well a s " quill of a lute ". Actually, no Indian ving, whether ancient or modern, was ever played with a bow, nor for th,at matter is the European lute. The representations show that the plectrum with which the97
Just as vajra is not always "diamond," but very often
" adamantine ",
etc. 8AccOrding t o NS., XXVIII, 25, imperfections in sound (being out of tune, etc.,) are attributed to defects either of the danda, or of the vddana (mistranslated "resonance" by Grosset, Contribution a 1'6tude de la rnusique himdoue, p. 5 7 ) or of the strings. The vina of Aus. Erz., 56, was at fault not only with respect to the danda, but also in having a hair on one of the strings.
The Parts of a Viwold Indian viga was played had the form of a thin rectangular or pointed piece of wood, held between the thumb and forefinger. With such a plectrum, not only the strings but also the arm of the lute could have been struck, when necessary, with considerable vigor, and this elucidates kondbhighdtesu, cited above from H., 252, s. v. danda. The plectrum is very clearly shown in some of the illustrations on the Plate; also in PaAcaBikha's hand in a Gandharan Visit of Indra, Foucher, L'Art gre'co-bouddhique du Gandhwa, I, fig. 247; where the player's hand is raised above his head as though he were striking with considerable force. But some reliefs seem to indicate a use of the fingers only without any plectrum. H~Zrchanzd ( S k r ) , mucchand ( P a l i ) , pitch. SN., IV, 197 (with bandhana, 1 possibly = s d d h d r q a of the NS). I n JBt., 1 , 249, Masila, viwm uttamamucchandya mucchetvd vcidesi, "having tuned the ving to a high pitch, played "; he then tunes the vina lower t o a medium pitch (majjhimamuochandya), and finally plays with the strings slack (sithile). I n Mahdvagga, V, 1, 16 we are told that if the strings of a ving are too much or too little stretched, i t is not in a fit condition to be played on. Mwchand is evidently used above (colloquially ? ) in the older sense equivalent to sthdna, pitch or register, as in the older Rkpratiddkhya where also we have three registers, uttama, madhya, and mandra (cf. Caland e t Henry, L'Agnistoma, p. 462). Sthdna is used in this sense in the NS (XXVIII, 3 5 ) , but now marchaw3 has come to mean mode, and there are seven mQrchands in each register, of which (fourteen) seven are called jdtis, a term practically equivalent to rdga. The NS. (XXVIII, 25) illustrates these points by citing the tuning of two vinls, a t first alike; the changes made by altering the pitch of the strings of one of them, and the comparison of the resulting notes with those of the other, show that a vin8 could be so tuned a s to take account of the twenty-two s'rutis, in other words lent itself to all the niceties of musical theory and practise. In the Avaddna Sataka, 17th story, i t is expressly stated t h a t Paficas'ikha playing on one string of a vinl produced the seven notes (sapta s v a r q d n i ) and the twenty-one modes (msrchands) ; i t is hardly implied that there was anything miraculous about this, except in that the effects were obtained from a single string. MzZrohand is used here evidently in the later sense of " mode ", as in the NS. But the NS knows only fourteen msrchands, seven for each grdma; perhaps the passage could be used to support the theory of the third gvdma, not mentioned in the NS, but referred to by Biirbgadeva in the thirteenth century as having " retired to Indraloka ".9 For the marchanii problems see Fox-Strangways, A. H., Music of Hindustan, pp. 106-112.
The word jdtivind occurring in Jgt. 1 . 249, must I think mean, 1 not as the translators have it " a beautiful vi~ti," but one adapted t o the playing of jdtis. But whether i t is to be deduced that not all vinss were so constructed as to make this possible, I cannot say. It is evident from the above passages, and implied by many others in which the skill of the player is so emphasized and the effects of the music described as so moving, that the viug could be tuned and kept in tune, and the same must he true of the modern Burmese saun; the music cannot have been a mere drone. I t is nevertheless very difficult to understand how such harps as this (which were also known to the Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans) could be tuned or kept in tune; not so much because no tuning devices are t o be seen in the representations, as because it would be impossible to make an instrument with a curved frame and no post, were the frame even of steel, so rigid t h a t a change of tension in one string would not alter that of all the others. Patta ( P a l i ), only in Miln., 53 ; rendered "bridge of metal " in b'. B. E . XXXV, 84, but apart from the fact that there is no autharity for "metal ", the use of a bridge on the harp-vina would be impossible, as the strings do not reach the sounding board side by side, but one above the other. I am inclined to think of "sling" a s a probable meaning, as we know from MaytZrcistaka, 1, cited above, that the vina was or could be supported in some such manner as )by a sling.1 This meaning also accords with the initial position of the word in the Miln. list of parts. A sling, passing over the right shoulder, seems to be represented in our Plate, Fig. 2. Pokkhara ( P a l i ) , the sounding board of a harp, made of stretched skin. I t is pierced by the chidddni, through which the strings pass, DhA., I, 215. Cf. pokkhara as skin of a drum. Synonym: carma. Siras (Skr.), head, i. e. the top of the arm (danda) of the vmB. In the representations the arm very often ends in a little scroll, which is 1, evidently the " head ". Kit. KT., 1 1 2, 5 ; BHr., VIII, 9. Possible synonym: upavina. Stbdna (Skr.), register, high, middle, or low. See s. v. mzirchaa; and Caland e t Henry, L'Agnistoma, p. 462, with reference to Sdmavidh. Br., I, 1, 8, 3. Svara (Skr.), note. The se*-en svaras are produced by the seven strings (Avadcina Sataka, 17th story; Caland e t Henry, L'Agnistma, pp.461, 4 6 2 ) .
Tantra, tantri (Skr.), tanti ( P a l i ) , strings. Kit. Kr., 111, 2, 5 ; BHr., VIII, 9 ; MS., XVII; SN., IV, 197; Miln., 53; and passim. The strings are seven in number; one above the other, they pass through holes in the sounding board into the hollow of the body (ambhana)loTn Div. 553, hastdd vinG grastd bhtimdu nipatitci, i t is perhaps implied by Grastd that the sling is loosened, and therefore the vina slips out of the player's hand.
The Parts of a Vipi
and probably through its under side, there to be fastened as in the modern Burmese saun; a t this point on the under side of the belly the tuning devices must also have been placed. For the question of tuning see s. v. mGrchand. Hit. Hr. and BHr. have tardmavati, apparently " tightly strung ". I n JBt. 1 . 253, the seven strings are broken in .succession, the 1 player performing on those remaining, and finally on the arm alone. The first string to be broken is called the bhamaratanti, "beestring "; as the first string to be broken would naturally be the top one, and as this being the longest would have the lowest note, we are able to identify the " bee-string " a s the top string. I n the case of a harp for charming elephants ([email protected]) three of the strings have magical effects when struck (DhA., I, 215). The vinas shown in the representations have sometimes seven, sometimes as many as ten strings. The VIQB with a hundred strings of BSS., XVII, XVIII, must have been a quite different instrument. I have seen in IZashmir an instrument resembling a Tyrolese zither, but with as many a s a hundred strings, and played like a dulcimer. Pace PTS Pali L)ictionwy, s. v. tantu, this word in J;it., V, 196, is the string of a toy, not of a musical instrument. Stringed instruments generally, including the vinB in particular, are called tantrikrta (NS., XXVIII, 9 ) . Synonym of tantra: satm; Buddhacarita, V, 55 (suvarnnastZtrdn), " golden strings ", the instrument being here designated by the less usual term parivcidini. Vdd, Skr. root used of playing the vinii, e. g. Div. 553, w vddayati; JBt. 1 , 1 248, vo vddesi; Aus. Erz., 31, w vdei; and passim. Instrumental music in general, as distinguished from song (gitd) and drama (ndtya) is called vddya (NS., XXVIII, 7 ) . Vddaka (Skr. and Pali) , vciyaga (Prakrit) , (vind-), vin8-player. gkr., VIII, 10 ; J a t . 11, 248 ; Aus. Erz., 56; and passim. Vddana (Skr.), vdyanaya ( P r a k r i t ) , the plectrum. Ait. Ar., 111,2,5; gAr., VIII, 9 (compared to the tongue of the human body, as a clapper, striker; &SS.,XVII, XVIII (vddini). NS., XXVIII, 25. Aus. Erz., 31 (the vdyonaya slips from the players hand). Synonym : kova, q. v. Vin6 (Skr. Pali, and P r a k r i t ) , in classical and earlier Sanskrit, etc., the h a r p - m a , Bogmharfe. Buddhacarita, V. 48, rukmapatracitrdm . . 1 vindm, a vin% decorated with gold leaf. Jdtivinci, Jnt. 1 , 248, sea s. v. mzlrchana. I n the Sakka-paiLha Ruttanta, also in the Dhammapada Atthakathd, 1 1 226, Paficasikha's vwd is made of "yellow 1, vefiuzla wood"; in the Avadcina Sntaka, story 53, its donda is made of (or decorated with) vdidlirya. This vinB originally belonged t o Mdra (veLt~va-danda-vo, DhA., I, 433). The word vigB is, of course, of constant occurrence, and i t would be superfluous to accumulate loci. According to Monier-Williams, the word pwivddin:, which occurs in Buddhacarita, V, 55, where i t is called big, and has golden
strings, is a seven stringed lute (sc. harp-vin8) ; cf. pwivbdentikd, s. v. carma. Hatthikanta-u%6, for charming elephants, DM., I, 215. Anuttdntildbu-vtgd, " rounded gourd v i n ~ H., 5 145. ", I t may be added that many of the terms already listed occur not alone, hut with the word vZga prefixed adjectivally, e.g. o $ id w d a k a , etc. V%d-drG (Pkt. =Skr. [email protected]&ya), an expert vina-player, occurs in Priyadariiikci, 111, 5.
The exact sense of some other terms is not so clear:ABgulifigraha (Skr.), WHr., VIII, 9 (compared t o the joints of the human body), translated "finger catches ", Keith, 1, 55. Perhaps the bindings on the arm of the vina, but the word order of the lists (see below) does not support this. &a.stravati (Skr.) of SHr. VIII, 9, is rendered " sounding board " by Keith, 1, 55; but a s the corresponding passage in Air. Br has iabdauati, I am inclined to think that iiastravati is merely a predicate, "gives out sound." Upastara+a (Sltr.), BHr. VIII, 9, rendered "covera" by Keith, 1, 55. I cannot offer any suggestion. U p a v i ~ [email protected],perhaps the same as Siras, part beyond or added to the , body of the viqa. Miln. 53, rendered " neck " in S. B. E. XXXV, 84; ,but the position of the word in the Miln. list, immediately following danda (arm or neck), would secm to imply the meaning "head" only; it is found also in the same position in SN., IV, 197. I t should be observed that Sltr. upavinaya means the playing of the vin& before someone, and not any part of the instrument itself (cf. upanyt) ; i t occurs in H. 3 82 in a charming passage where the bees are said to play with their feet a tiny (bala-) vi?zd, the strings of which are the rosy rays of the royal earring (cf. "beestring ", s. v. tantra) .
I n conclusion of this section, i t will be worth while to cite the lists of terms as given in Miln. and SN., as they seem to be arranged in logical order, and this gives some clues to meaning. I n Miln., 63, we have patta, camrna, don% d u ~ d a upavana, tantiyo, , kona: in SN., IV, 197, the same, omitting patta. I n S h . , VIII, 9, we have a reverse order; disregarding iastravati which comes first, we have iiras, datzda, ambhana, chidr&ni, afigulinigrahds,
It remains to be observed that another stringed instrument, more like a lute or mandolin, also very like a Japanese biwa, is repre-
T h e Parts of a Vipi
sented less often in the reliefs, either replacing the harp (e. g., Descent of the Bodhisattva, Amariivati, Indian Museum, Calcutta, reproduced in Burgess, Buddhist S t u p m of Amaravati and Jaggayyapeta, fig. 7) or used together with it (our Plate, fig. 6, also in one of
The old Indian lute or mandolin.
the Amariivati dancing scenes in the British Museum). This instrument has five strings, struck with a plectrum; and a corresponding number of tuning pegs at the top of the long neck (see accompanying restoration based on several representations). We do not know what this instrument was called; but as the other is best called a harp, so this is best referred to as a kind of mandolin. It seems to survive in the Travancore dunduni (Sachs, fig. 79), which is played with a plectrum, and has frets.
1. Two seated female harpists, part of the chorus of a dance of apsarases, Bharhut, ca. 175 B. C. Indian Museum, Calcutta. 2. Harpist (possibly Paficahikha) walking, accompanying a processional dancer, Amariivati, ca. 200 A. D. British Museum. 3. One of two seated female harpists in a scene similar t o fig. 1, from a Bunga railing pillar from Besnagar. Gwalior Museum. 4. Two seated female harpists, part of the chorus in a dancing scene, railing medallion from AmarBvati, ca. 200 A. D. British Museum. 5. (Seated female harpist, part of the chorus in a dancing scene, from a pre-Kuslna architrave, now J 626 in the Lucknow Museum. 6. Dancing scene from an architrave, Pawayii, Gwalior; Gupta. Harpist on right, "mandolin" player on left. For illustrations of Paacaiikha with his vMci see my " Early Indian Iconography 1, Indra," Emtern Art, Vol. 1, 1928. A Gandharan relief in which the plectrum is clearly shown is reproduced in Me'moires concernant l'asie orientale, 1 1 1919, PI. IV, Fig. 5; but ib. Fig. 4 the vin% seems 1, to be played with the thumb without any visible plectrum.