alcohol use and its effects

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Alcohol use and its effects. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Alcohol use and its effectsProblem drinking is now our third major health hazard, after heart disease and cancer. Continued alcohol misuse can lead to social, legal, domestic, job and financial problems. It may also cut a lifespan by 10-15 years and lead to overdosing, suicide, accidents and death from drink driving

  • Why people drink or take drugs

    People think its all about misery and desperation and death and all that shite, which is not to be ignored, but, what they forget is the pleasure of itotherwise we wouldnt do it!

    Trainspotting by Irvine Welsh

  • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ALCOHOL USE

    Historical records of drunkenness exist from the 7th centuryThe church was particularly vocal on the issue of drunkenness, considering it a sin against GodMany historical records show harsh punishments for drunkenness, with priests defrocked and laymen imprisonedAlcohol has historically been used at celebrations (after battles/wars, social events) and large-scale drunkenness was not uncommon

  • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ALCOHOL USEIn 1552 public drunkenness became an offence for the first time under civil lawIn the middle-ages the drinking of gin became such a problem that Parliament was forced to heavily tax it with the introduction of the Gin Act in 1776The origin of the disease concept of alcoholism has been credited to Benjamin Rush 1745 in the USA and Thomas Trotter in the UK

  • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ALCOHOL USE Rush argued that excessive use of spirits created an imbalance in the nervous system and identified alcoholism as a disease in which alcohol is the causal agent, loss of control over drinking behaviour the characteristic symptom, and total abstinence the only effective cure.

  • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ALCOHOL USEDuring the 19th century, many chronic alcoholics were incarcerated in lunatic asylums. This practice continued well into the 20th century.In 1890 William Booth, founder of the Salvation Army, identified alcohol use as an escape mechanism from poverty.The first world War of 1917 killed drunkenness as an issue of public concern in this county

  • HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE OF ALCOHOL USEHowever, consumption of alcohol became so critical in the USA that its use was prohibited by law in 1920. The Law was repealed in 1933The disease concept of alcoholism has evolved over the past 250 years due to advancement in medicine, public health and psychiatry. However, public attitudes to drunkenness have changed little over the centuriesPunitive measures continue to be regarded as the solution to alcoholic behaviour. The latest government thinking is of coursestop their benefits

  • Alcohol and its effectsReward: to start with people drink for many different reasons; to feel good, confident, relaxed, to keep fear or shyness at bay and to increase a persons confidence or to keep bad feelings or memories at bayAll of these effects constitute a pay-off or reward for the user. The reward system is part of our survival kit, which has evolved to ensure the survival of the species, and makes essential activities such as eating, drinking, and sex pleasurable. The reward system releases opiods, (opiate-like substances), neurotransmitters which raise our dopamine levels and create a feeling of satisfaction. That feeling can become addictive

  • Alcohol and its effectsTolerance; people drink for those rewards but always seem to fall short of them. This creates the need to drink larger amounts and for longer periods of time to produce the same effect and reward. They gradually fall short of the reward or pay off that they seek.Dependence; at this stage the person needs to drink to function normally and satisfy the craving they experience. If they stop drinking they get the opposite effect of reward; depression, agitation, irritability, and then withdrawal. These effects are devastating to the person. Starting to drink again seems a better option than stopping.

  • Can lead to AddictionCycle of addiction; dependence is the need for continued use to avoid the physical and psychological withdrawal tremors, sweating, cramps, diarrhoea, vomiting, cravings, depression etc. The cycle of addiction has begun

  • Symptoms of AlcoholismIncrease of tolerance, (needs more to get same effect)Temporary loss of memory starts to occur, (blackouts)Sneaking drinks or hiding the amount drunkPreoccupation with drinkingHurrying drinking, (effect needed not the social participationAvoiding any reference to amount of drinking taking place or reductionismLoss of control, (inability to predict the amount you will drink once you start)Excuses, justificationExtravagant cost, (cant really afford it; going without essentials to pay for it)Aggression, (verbal or physical)

  • Symptoms of AlcoholismRemorse, depression, guiltFailed attempts to stopChange in drinking patterns, and drinksLoss of friendships, relationshipsResentmentsHeightened self-centrednessPoor me, self pityStashing supplyDrinking first thing on a morningViolating own moral standards

  • Symptoms of AlcoholismTolerance decreased, now need less to get drunkIrrational fearsIrrational thinking, paranoiaTremors, hand shakingInability to perform routine tasks without a drinkConfidence severely deteriorated without a drinkKnows needs help but finds excuses not to take up help

    *That feeling becomes addictive in alcoholics