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MESUT KARAPINAR

AFGHANISTAN

MESUT KARAPINAR

INTRODUCTION OF AFGHANISTAN

HISTORY OF AFGHANISTAN

MATHER WITH AFGHANISTAN

TARADITIONAL AND NON-TRADITIONAL PROBLEMS

THE COMPOSITION OF ETHNIC CONSTRUCTION

ILLICIT DRUG PRODUCTION AND SECURITY CONCLUSION

CONTENT2Officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan is a landlocked country located in South Asia.

It has a population around 31 million people, making it the 42 st most populous country in the world.

It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast. Its territory covers 652,000km2 making it the 41st largest country in the world. Its official language are Darica and Pashto.INTRODUCTION

4Kabul is taken in 1818 by an Afghan tribe, the Barakzai, led on this occasion by Dost Mohammed.

By the end of 1840 the Rightful Amir, Dost Mohammed, were a prisoner of the British. He and his family are sent into exile into India.

During the 1800s generally went under Britania invasion.

In 8 August 1919 end of the Britania war it gained independent.AFGHANSTAN HISTORY

5Daud Khan resigned in 1963 because of tense relations with Pakistan (the border was closed from 1961 until just after his resignation).

The constitution put in place in 1964 transforms Afghanistan in principle into a constitutional monarchy.

1973 Daud Khan has came back into power and he took steps to mend fences with Pakistan.

1978 79 Daud's government was overthrown (and he and most of his family killed) by a lef-wing faction within the army (President of faction was Nur Muhammed Taraki)

AFGHANSTAN HISTORY

61979-1989 Soviet occupation.

1989-1994 Sivil war.

1994-2011 Taliban control.

After 11 September 2001 with ABD attacks NATO has taken the control.

AFGHANSTAN HISTORY7After 11 September 2001, with attacks of ABD to Afghanistan conflict starts.

Afghanistan still poses a major threat to the United States as a potential safe haven for anti-American elements.

Afghanistan, a country at the center of the longest war in American history

Karzai (at present, Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai) government could not take full responsibility for national security.What s The Mather With Afghanistan?8There are other problems, lack of security, abject poverty, negligible government services and a myriad of other challenges, that affect them on a daily basis.Invested in only a select few regions of their country over the yearsTaliban could control most of the region and so the center authority can not control all of the country Only Kabul is now home to more universities, television stations and Internet cafes, but the many others were banned under Taliban rule.

What s The Mather With Afghanistan?

9Geopolitical Analysis of Afghanistan

Afghanistans strategic position at the crossroads of so many trade routes has for centuries made it vulnerable to invasion by distant as well as neighbouring powers, and this situation persists today.

Because of geopolitical important, Afghanistan exposured invations many time. Traditional Matters10The Army Of Afghanistan

Afghan armed forces to about 260,000.

Despite billions of dollars of international investment, army combat readiness has been undermined by weak recruitment and retention policies, inadequate logistics, insufficient training and equipment and inconsistent leadership.Traditional Matters11ISAFISAF was established on the basis of a request for assistance by the Afghan authorities and under a United Nations (UN) mandate.

Since August 2003 till 2015 the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) had been conducting security operations, while also training and developing the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF). Traditional Matters12Resolute Support Mission

RSM was launched on 1 January 2015 to provide further training, advice and assistance for the Afghan security.

12,000 personnel.

The mission will operate with one central hub (in Kabul/Bagram) and four spokes in Mazar-e Sharif, Herat, Kandahar and Laghman. Traditional Matters13

14Governance and Democracy

Afghanistan has drafted a new constitution and organized presidential, parliamentary.

Unfortunately Afghanistan has not effective government. Non-Traditional Matters15Economy in Afghanistan.

The economy of Afghanistan has improved significantly since 2002 due to the infusion of billions of US dollars in international assistance and investments, as well as remittances from expats. It is also due to dramatic improvements in agricultural production but in recent years drought influenced most of the country.

Afghanistan still remains one of the poorest and least developed countries in the world that is highly dependent on foreign aid.Non-Traditional Matters

16Economy in Afghanistan.

About half the population suffer from shortages of housing, clean drinking water, electricity and employment.

The Government of Afghanistan and international donors have remained committed to improving access to these basic necessities by prioritizing infrastructure development, education, housing development, jobs programs, medical care, and economic reform over the recent years.

The replacement of the opium trade, which probably makes up about one-third of the country's GDP, is one of several potential spoilers for the economy over the long term.Non-Traditional Matters17Economy in Afghanistan

Cattle grazing is an important part of Afghan economy.

Afganistan has deposits of coal, copper, barium, sulfur, lead, zinc, iron ore, salt and emeralds.

Small manufacturers process agricultural products and produce coton and other fabrics.

Main exports of Afghanistan are fruits, nuts, lambskins, gemstones and handwoven carpets. The country imports mainly machinery, manufactured goods, petroleum products and foodstuffs.

Non-Traditional Matters18Education

Two separate systems of education exist in Afghanistan. The older system is a religious one, teach by the mullahs, who conduct schools in the village mosques. They teach the religious precepts of the Koran, reading, writing, and arithmetic. The other system was introduced in Afghanistan's 1964 constitution and provided for free and compulsory education at all levels.Non-Traditional Matters19Elementary School

20Healty System

Afghanistan's health status is one of the worst in the world.Non-Traditional Matters

21Healty System

At the end of the conflict, what was left of the health system was characterized by: inadequate infrastructures with dilapidated facilities unevenly distributed across the country; impaired access to health services due to difficult communications and poor security; chronic shortage of skilled health providers (especially female); poor information system; and weak implementation of the newly approved national health policy.

This resulted in inefficient coverage and health services delivery, and NGOs working to some extent independently from national structures.Non-Traditional Matters22nfrastructureMany remote areas of Afghanistan never had much infrastructure.

Decades of war, a harsh climate and neglect left much of what had been built in rubble.

Most rural villages lacked electricity, running water, or roads to link them to schools, health clinics and gov-ernment services.

Non-Traditional Matters23nfrastructureWithout electricity, businesses could not operate machinery.

Households had no running water for drinking, cooking and cleaning, and absence of clean drinking water posed a major public-health challenge.

Underdeveloped roads hampered movement of goods to domestic and international markets, and isolated villages from basic government services, even police or military protection.Non-Traditional Matters24Life in AfghanistanThere are 53 urban centers that range in size from 2500 to 350.000 people.

Kabil is the capital and population about 3 million. Other big cities are Herat, Kandehar, Belh, Celalabat, Kunduz.

In the smaller villages there are no schools, no stores, nor any representative of the government.

Each village has three sources of authority within it: the malik (village headman), the mirab (master of the water distribution), and the mullah (teacher of Islamic laws)

Non-Traditional Matters

25Life in AfghanistanThe men wear long cotton shirts, which hang over their trousers, and wide sashes around their waists.

The women wear a long loose shirt or a high-bodice dress with a swirling skirt over their trousers. When urban women leave their houses they usually wear a burka or shadier, a long tentlike veil that covers them from head to foot.

Non-Traditional Matters

26Life in AfghanistanWomen in villages seldom wear the burka, and educated urban women discarded the custom, especially under Soviet domination where it was regarded as backward.

Village men work in the fields, joined by the women during the harvest. Older children tend the flocks and look after the smaller children.

The village mosque is the center of religious life and is often used as the village guest house. Non-Traditional Matters

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37The biggest security Problem is Taliban:

The Taliban is a predominantly Pashtun, Islamic fundamentalist group that ruled Afghanistan from 1996 until 2001, when a U.S.-led invasion toppled the regime for providing refuge to al-Qaeda and Osama bin Laden.

The Taliban r