233 prosimians

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  • 1. TO KNOW:
    • RECOGNIZE BETTER KNOWN GENERA
  • GENUS
  • COMMON NAME
  • DISTINGUISHING/INTERESTING CHARACTERISTICS
  • Books on reserve and ppts

2. 3. LEMURIFORMES OF MADAGASCAR ALL ENDANGERED HUMANS ARRIVED 1.5 kya 4. LEMURIDAE (low sexual dimorphism) 5.

  • True lemurs
  • Multi-male/female
  • Some dichromatic
  • Cathemeral important pollinators (black lemurs more nocturnal than diurnal - night blooms)
  • Semi-terrestrial quadruped with VCL capabilities
  • FFTK:Brown lemurs salivate on millipedes and roll between hands before eating

Crowned Black ( orange) BrownMongoose Eulemur 6. Lemur

  • 1 species:L. catta- ring-tailed lemur
  • Cat-sized, ~6#
  • Herbivores
  • Suffer seasonal periods of food scarcity

7.

  • Most terrestrial

8.

  • Large multi-male/female groups
    • Even in face of food shortages
    • Additional protection from predators
  • Core of females which are dominant to males in food contests

9.

  • Vulnerable to predators
  • Have distinct alarm calls aerial vs. terrestrial
  • Males stink fight

10.

  • Polyspecific association - brown lemurs

11. Hapalemur Gentle or bamboo lemur

  • 3 sympatric species at 1 site
  • Diet
  • Cyanogenic compounds
  • Niche partitioning: plant part, (level, time?)

12. SETH PALMER IN MADAGASCAR 11 WALKING STICK!!! 13.

  • 1 species:V. variegata- ruffed lemur
  • Only large lemur to give birth to multiple offspring
  • Dont survive well in logged areas eat large fruit from large trees

Varecia 14. MEGALADAPIDAE 15.

  • Sportive, weasel lemurs
  • Broad distribution
  • 1 sp cannot survive well in logged areas cannot sustain themselves moving too far between trees
  • Small, drab-colored
  • Nocturnal VCLs
  • Territorial scars
  • Leaves, activity, copraphagic
  • Solitary or pairs
  • Single births, parking

Lepilemur 16. CHEIROGALEIDAE Smallest and most primitive lemuriformes 17.

  • Nocturnal
  • Nest-building - sleep in nests or tree holes during day
  • Some hibernate for as long as 6-9 mos
  • Most store fat in tail
  • 3 pairs nipples
  • Usually multiple offspring (1-4 depending on species)

18. Allocebus

  • Hairy-eared dwarf lemur
  • Thought extinct (critically endangered)
  • Rediscovered in 1989
  • 1 location in N Madagascar

19. Cheirogaleus

  • Dwarf/fat-tailed lemurs

20.

  • Most abundant and widespread of lemurs
  • M. myoxinus pygmy mouse lemur
    • Smallest primate
    • Adults 1 oz

Microcebus 21.

  • Infants 1/5 oz, adults2 oz
  • Females > males
  • Fat (base of tail) - seasonally can increase wt 4x
  • Arboreal quadrupeds but may travel on ground
  • Most faunivorous but% of diet

M. murinus Mouse lemurs 22.

  • Solitary foragers
  • Dispersed polygyny social system
  • Females may congregate in nests
  • Males tolerate one another and may sleep together until mating season
  • Dominant male suppresses subordinate males via urine pheromones
  • Highest predation rates of all primates
  • 2-3 offspring up to twice/yr

23.

  • Coquerel's dwarf lemur
  • Dont store fat in tail
  • In addition to usual scent marking, practice scent discharge perceptible to humans

M. coquereli 24.

  • 1 species: fork-marked lemur
  • Gum specialists:
    • Reinforced fingernails for clinging
    • Upper and lower procumbent incisors, long canines
    • Long narrow tongue
    • Large cecum

Phaner 25. INDRIDAE

  • 3 genera which differ in size and activity patterns
  • Specialized leapers with long limbs especially hindlimbs
  • Usually single births with long birth intervals
  • 2 of 3 monogamous
  • Herbivorous

26.

  • 1 species A. laniger - Woolly lemur
  • Alarm call sounds like name in Malagasy a ha hy
  • Nocturnal

Avahi 27.

  • Territorial pairs
  • Male and female stay in close contact, resting or grooming 40% of night

28.

  • Sifaka
  • Long limbs, tail
  • Diurnal

Propithecus 29.

  • One-male or multi-male
  • Infanticide reported
  • Verreauxs sifaka
    • Females dominant to males
  • Have distinct alarm calls aerial vs. terrestrial

Critically endangeredP. candidus 30.

  • VCL
  • Bipedally hop on ground

31. Indri

  • Indris or babakotos (little man of the forest)
  • Diurnal

32.

  • Largest 13-16#
  • Short stubby tail (vs sifaka)

33. Duet - spacing mechanism 34.

  • Territorial pairs mate face-to-face hanging under branch!

35.

  • Geophagic
  • High feed, low social

36. DAUBENTONIIDAE 37. Daubentonia aye-aye

  • Largest nocturnal primate
  • Possibly most widely distributed but low density
  • Medium size - ~5 #
  • Good hearing, smell, and manual dexterity->large brain
  • Mate hanging upside down (1hr)!

38.

  • Large continuously growing rodent-like incisors
  • 1.0.(1).3/1.0.0.3

39.

  • Skeletal 3rd digit
  • Metacarpo-phalangeal joint is ball and socket vs. condylar

40.

  • Nocturnal arboreal quadrupededs
  • Some fear kill chickens and dont fear humans
  • Some believe good luck

41.

  • Specialize on grub/larvae
  • Also eat fruit, coconuts

42.

  • Hunt by audition, gnaw bark w/ incisors, probe w/ 3rd digit
  • Niche of woodpecker

43. Crop raiders for coconuts and sugar cane 44.

  • Build leaf nests
  • Solitary foragers but observed in multi-adult groups BUT Rowe says male overlaps females but females seldom overlap

A creature only a mother could love!!! Future chicken killerYIKES!!! 45. AFRICA 46. GALAGONIDAE 47. Galago

  • Bushbabies some sound like babies crying
  • All species are sympatric with congeners

48.

  • Small nocturnal VCLs
  • Solitary foragers
  • Dispersed polygyny
  • Female philopatric
  • Females sleep together in nests

49. TOO CUTE!!!!

  • In unpredictable areas have 2 litters per year

50.

  • High insectsand gums
  • Male dominance hierarchy based on age and weight

51. 52. Other species

  • Otolemur Greater bushbaby largest
  • Galagoides Demidoffs or Zanzibar bushbaby endangered when interacting with adults, if kids hold tail in corkscrew pose, not attacked
  • Euoticus Needle-clawed bushbaby clawlike nails used to cling/climb - gumnivory

53. LORIDAE

  • Slow for most part
  • IMI~100
  • Scapular shield:
    • Elongated cervical spines (hump)
  • Butt, bite, drop
  • Singletons
  • Some parking
  • Opposable thumbs

54. Perodicticus

  • Potto (softly - soft, slow, silent)
  • Forests, savanna, plantations
  • Central and west Africa
  • 1.8-3.5#
  • Short bottle-brush tail
  • Solitary foragers but can be social groom, play, fight
  • Hunt by olfaction

55. Slow climber with nose to branch Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 56.

  • Low insects ~10%, high FR 65% gums 21%

57.

  • Dispersed polygyny
  • ~Monomorphic
  • Infanticide

58.

  • Angwantibos
  • Smaller, slender
  • Slow climber
  • High insects w/ some fruit
  • Similar social organization as pottos

Arctocebus 59.

  • Pseudopotto
  • I know nothing!

Pseudopotto 60. ASIA 61. Loris

  • Slender loris - "