1 Nuclear Radiation Nuclear Fission and Fusion Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

Download 1 Nuclear Radiation Nuclear Fission and Fusion Copyright © 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> 1 Nuclear Radiation Nuclear Fission and Fusion Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Energy can be obtained two ways Fission Splitting atoms Get energy if the nucleus is big. The smaller ones are more stable. What we do in nuclear reactors. Fusion Joining atoms Get energy if the nuclei are small. The larger one is more stable. This is how the sun works. 2 </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Nuclear Fission Fission is the splitting of atoms These are usually very large, so that they are not as stable Fission chain has three general steps: 1. Initiation. Reaction of a single atom starts the chain (e.g., 235U + neutron) 2. Propagation. 236U fission releases neutrons that initiate other fissions 3. Termination. 3 </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Nuclear Fission A very heavy nucleus splits into more stable nuclei of intermediate mass. The mass of the products is less than the mass of the reactants. Missing mass is converted to energy 4 </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 5 In nuclear fission, a large nucleus is bombarded with a small particle. the nucleus splits into smaller nuclei and several neutrons. large amounts of energy are released. Nuclear Fission </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> 6 When a neutron bombards 235 U, an unstable nucleus of 236 U undergoes fission (splits). smaller nuclei are produced such as Kr-91 and Ba-142. neutrons are released to bombard more 235 U. 1 n + 235 U 236 U 91 Kr + 142 Ba + 3 1 n + 0 92 92 36 56 0 Nuclear Fission Energy </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> 7 Nuclear Fission Diagram 1 n + 235 U 236 U 91 Kr + 142 Ba + 3 1 n + energy 0 92 92 36 56 0 Copyright 2005 by Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Where does all this energy come from? 8 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> E = mc2 E = Energy (joules) m = mass (kg) c = speed of light = 3 x 10^8 m/s 9 </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> 10 Learning Check Supply the missing atomic symbol to complete the equation for the following nuclear fission reaction. 1 n + 235 U 137 Te + ? X + 2 1 n + energy 0 92 52 ? 0 </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> 11 Solution 1 n + 235 U 137 Te + 97 Zr + 2 1 n + energy 0 92 52 40 0 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> 12 Chain Reaction A chain reaction occurs when a critical mass of uranium undergoes fission. releasing a large amount of heat and energy that produces an atomic explosion. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> 13 Nuclear Power Plants In nuclear power plants, fission is used to produce energy. control rods in the reactor absorb neutrons to slow and control the chain reactions of fission. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Fusion Light-mass nuclei combine to form a heavier, more stable nucleus. More energetic than fission reactions Source of energy for the H-bomb Origin of the elements 14 </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> The most destructive force on the planet 15 H-bombs 1000s of times more powerful than A-bombs </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> 16 Nuclear Fusion Fusion occurs at extremely high temperatures (100 000 000C). combines small nuclei into larger nuclei. releases large amounts of energy. occurs continuously in the sun and stars. </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> 17 Fusion: small nuclei form larger nuclide, release energy This type of Fusion is being Examined as An alternative Energy source On Earth. Small nuclei come together to form larger nuclide, releasing energy </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Fusion of Helium atoms 4 2He + 4 2 He ? + energy 18 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Fusion of Helium atoms 4 2He + 4 2He 8 4Be + energy 19 </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Practice 4 2He + 8 4Be ? + energy 4 2He + ? 16 8O + energy 4 2He + 16 8O ? + energy 4 2He + 20 10Ne ? + energy 20 </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Answers 4 2He + 8 4Be 12 6C + energy 4 2He + 12 6C 16 8O + energy 4 2He + 16 8O 20 10Ne + energy 4 2He + 20 10Ne 24 12Mg + energy 21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> 22 Indicate if each of the following describes 1) nuclear fissionor 2) nuclear fusion. ___ A. a nucleus splits. ___ B. large amounts of energy are released. ___ C. small nuclei form larger nuclei. ___ D. hydrogen nuclei react. ___ E. several neutrons are released. Learning Check </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> 23 Indicate if each of the following is 1) nuclear fissionor 2) nuclear fusion. 1 A. a nucleus splits. 1, 2 B. large amounts of energy are released. 2 C. small nuclei form larger nuclei. 2 D. hydrogen nuclei react. 1 E. several neutrons are released. Solution </li> </ul>

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