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    Oxford University Press 2011

    Digital Image ProcessingDigital Image Processing

    S. SridharS. Sridhar,Associate Professor,Department of Information Science and

    Technoo!y, "oe!e of #n!ineerin!$%indy "amp%s, Anna University,

    "hennai

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    Chapter 1Chapter 1

    Introduction to Image ProcessingIntroduction to Image Processing

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    &at%re of Ima!e Processin!

    ' Ima!es are every(here) So%rces of Ima!es arepaintin!s, photo!raphs in ma!a*ines, +o%rnas, Ima!e!aeries, di!ita i-raries, ne(spapers, advertisement-oards, teevision and Internet.

    ' Ima!es are imitations of Ima!es.

    ' In ima!e processin!, the term /ima!e is %sed to denote

    the ima!e data that is samped, %anti*ed, and readiyavaia-e in a form s%ita-e for f%rther processin! -ydi!ita comp%ters.

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    IMAGE PROCESSIG

    #&I3O&4#&T

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    3efective mode Ima!in!

    ' Reflective mode imaging represents the

    simpest form of ima!in! and %ses asensor to ac%ire the di!ita ima!e. A

    video cameras, di!ita cameras, and

    scanners %se some types of sensors for

    capt%rin! the ima!e.

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    Emissive type imaging

    ' Emissive type imaging is the second type, (here

    the ima!es are ac%ired from sef5%mino%s

    o-6ects (itho%t the hep of a radiation so%rce. Inemissive type ima!in!, the o-6ects are sef5

    %mino%s. The radiation emitted -y the o-6ect is

    directy capt%red -y the sensor to form an

    ima!e. Therma ima!in! is an exampe of

    emissive type ima!in!.

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    Transmissive imaging

    ' Transmissive imaging is the third type,

    (here the radiation so%rce i%minates theo-6ect. The a-sorption of radiation -y the

    o-6ects depends %pon the nat%re of the

    materia. Some of the radiation passes

    thro%!h the o-6ects. The atten%atedradiation is sensed into an ima!e.

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    Ima!e Processin!

    ' Optical image processing is an area that deas(ith the o-6ect, optics, and ho( processes areappied to an ima!e that is avaia-e in the form

    of refected or transmitted

    ' Analog image processing is an area that deas(ith the processin! of anao! eectrica si!nas

    %sin! anao! circ%its. The ima!in! systems that%se fim for recordin! ima!es are aso 7no(n asanao! ima!in! systems.

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    8hat is Di!ita Ima!e Processin!9

    ' Digital image processing is an area that

    %ses di!ita circ%its, systems, and soft(are

    a!orithms to carry o%t the ima!e

    processin! operations. The ima!e

    processin! operations may inc%de %aity

    enhancement of an ima!e, co%ntin! ofo-6ects, and ima!e anaysis.

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    Reasons !or Popularit" o! DIP

    1. It is easy to post5process the ima!e. Sma correctionscan -e made in the capt%red ima!e %sin! soft(are.

    2. It is easy to store the ima!e in the di!ita memory.

    :. It is possi-e to transmit the ima!e over net(or7s. Sosharin! an ima!e is %ite easy.

    ;. A di!ita ima!e does not re%ire any chemicaprocess. So it is very environment friendy, as harmf%fim chemicas are not re%ired or %sed.

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    IMAGE PROCESSIG AD

    RE#A$ED %IE#DS

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    3eations (ith other -ranches

    ' Ima!e processin! deas (ith raster data or-itmaps, (hereas comp%ter !raphics primariy

    deas (ith vector data.

    ' In di!ita si!na processin!, one often deas (iththe processin! of a one5dimensiona si!na. In

    the domain of ima!e processin!, one deas (ithvis%a information that is often in t(o or moredimensions.

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    3eations (ith other -ranches

    ' The main !oa of machine vision is to

    interpret the ima!e and to extract its

    physica, !eometric, or topoo!ica

    properties. Th%s, the o%tp%t of ima!e

    processin! operations can -e s%-6ected to

    more techni%es, to prod%ce additionainformation for interpretation.

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    3eations (ith other -ranches

    ' Ima!e processin! is a-o%t sti ima!es.

    Th%s, video processin! is an extension of

    ima!e processin!. In addition, ima!es are

    stron!y reated to m%timedia, as the fied

    of m%timedia -roady inc%des the st%dy of

    a%dio, video, ima!es, !raphics, andanimation.

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    3eations (ith other -ranches

    ' Optica ima!e processin! deas (ith

    enses, i!ht, i!htin! conditions, and

    associated optica circ%its. The st%dy of

    enses and i!htin! conditions has an

    important roe in the st%dy of ima!e

    processin!.

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    3eations (ith other -ranches

    ' Ima!e anaysis is an area that concernsthe extraction and anaysis of o-6ect

    information from the ima!e. Ima!in!appications invove -oth simpe statisticss%ch as co%ntin! and mens%ration and

    compex statistics s%ch as advancedstatistica inference. So statistics pay animportant roe in ima!in! appications.

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    Di!ita Ima!e

    ' An ima!e can -e defined as a 2D si!na

    that varies over the spatia coordinatesx

    and y, and can -e (ritten mathematicay

    as f =x, y>.

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    Di!ita Ima!e

    ' The va%e of the f%nction f =x, y> at every pointindexed -y a ro( and a co%mn is caed greyvalue or intensity of the ima!e.

    ' 3eso%tion is an important characteristic of anima!in! system. It is the a-iity of the ima!in!system to prod%ce the smaest discerna-edetais, i.e., the smaest si*ed o-6ect ceary, anddifferentiate it from the nei!h-o%rin! smao-6ects that are present in the ima!e.

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    Usef% definitions

    ' Ima!e reso%tion depends on t(o factors?optica reso%tion of the ens and spatiareso%tion. A %sef% (ay to define reso%tion isthe smaest n%m-er of ine pairs per %nitdistance.

    ' Spatia reso%tion depends on t(o parameters?the n%m-er of pixes of the ima!e and then%m-er of -its necessary for ade%ate intensityreso%tion, referred to as the -it depth.

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    Usef% definitions

    ' The n%m-er of -its necessary to encodethe pixe va%e is caed bit depth. @it depth

    is a po(er of t(o it can -e (ritten aspo(ers of 2.

    ' So the tota n%m-er of -its necessary to

    represent the ima!e is' &%m-er of ro(s B &%m-er of co%mns C

    @it depth

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    $&PES O% IMAGES

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    $"pes o! Images 'ased on

    Colour

    $rey scae ima!es are different from-inary ima!es as they have many shades

    of !rey -et(een -ac7 and (hite. Theseima!es are aso caed monochromatic asthere is no coo%r component in the

    ima!e, i7e in -inary ima!es. Grey scale isthe term that refers to the ran!e of shades-et(een (hite and -ac7 or vice versa.

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    Types of Ima!es

    ' In -inary ima!es, the pixes ass%me a va%e of 0or 1. So one -it is s%fficient to represent the pixeva%e. @inary ima!es are aso caed -i5eve

    ima!es.

    ' In tr%e coo%r ima!es, the pixe has a coo%r thatis o-tained -y mixin! the primary coo%rs red,

    !reen, and -%e. #ach coo%r component isrepresented i7e a !rey scae ima!e %sin! ei!ht-its. 4osty, tr%e coo%r ima!es %se 2; -its torepresent a the coo%rs.

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    Indexed Ima!e

    ' A specia cate!ory of coo%r ima!es is the

    indexed ima!e. In most ima!es, the f%

    ran!e of coo%rs is not %sed. So it is -etter

    to red%ce the n%m-er of -its -ymaintainin! a coo%r map, !am%t, or

    paette (ith the ima!e.

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    Pse%docoo%r Ima!e

    ' i7e tr%e coo%r ima!es, Pse%docoo%rima!es are aso %sed (idey in ima!e

    processin!. Tr%e coo%r ima!es are caedthree5-and ima!es. o(ever, in remotesensin! appications, m%ti5-and ima!es

    or m%ti5spectra ima!es are !eneray%sed. These ima!es, (hich are capt%red-y sateites, contain many -ands.

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    Types of Ima!es -ased on

    Dimensions

    ' $"pes o! Images 'ased on Dimensions

    2D and :D' $"pes o! Images 'ased on Data $"pes

    ' Sin!e, do%-e, Si!ned or %nsi!ned.

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    DIGI$A# IMAGE PROCESSIG

    OPERA$IOS

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    Ima!e Anaysis

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    Ima!e #nhancement

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    Ima!e 3estoration

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    Ima!e "ompression

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    Ima!e Anaysis

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    Ima!e Synthesis

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    Ima!e Processin! Appications

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    Di!ita Ima!in! System

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    "omponents

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