1 geothermal heat pumps a - z session 1 understanding geothermal heat pumps and their value to...
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1 Geothermal Heat Pumps A - Z Session 1 Understanding Geothermal Heat Pumps and their Value to Utilities 2012 Illinois Geothermal Conference Peoria, IL February 28, 2012 Paul Bony Director Of Residential Market Development ClimateMaster Slide 2 2 Introduction To Ground Source Heat pumps (GSHP) Subjects to be covered The history of GSHP How GSHPs Work Why GSHPs are of Value to Electric Utilities ClimateMaster Slide 3 3 Earth Energy Its Not New Earth energy system was first patented in Switzerland in 1912 Residential system installed in Canada in 1950 Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy ClimateMaster Slide 4 4 Heat Pump Systems are Reliable Mr. Bill Loosley installed geothermal system in his home in Burlington, ON in 1950 Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy ClimateMaster Slide 5 5 Mr. Loosleys System: Belt drive compressor Air coil in old oil furnace Desuperheater added to hot water tank Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy ClimateMaster Slide 6 6 Heat Pump Systems are Reliable Compressor was initially powered by hand crank diesel motor changed to electric motor (still being used!!) in 1953 when his wife couldnt start it. Courtesy Mr. Ed Lohrenz, CGD, GeoXergy ClimateMaster Slide 7 7 GSHP Basics ClimateMaster Slide 8 8 Geothermal Heat Pump Systems combine Sun, Earth and Water using proven technology to create the most energy-efficient, environmentally clean, and cost-effective space-conditioning system (according to U.S. EPA 1993) Slide 9 9 Geothermal System Components Heat pump Ground loop ClimateMaster Slide 10 10 Heat Pumps Are All Around Us Air conditioners and air-source heat pumps transfer heat from inside houses to the air outside Refrigerators transfer heat from food into the kitchen HEAT B B B ClimateMaster Slide 11 11 Heat Pump Components Compressor Refrigerant reversing valve Fluid heat exchanger ground loop (Coax) Metering device TXV Air heat exchanger air coil Electrical Controls ClimateMaster Slide 12 12 Option ClimateMaster Slide 13 13 Simple Concept Water moves energy better than air does Water in the ground provides renewable energy 13 Typical water-refrigerant Heat Exchanger used in most GSHP equipment Slide 14 14 47% of the solar energy falling on our planet is absorbed by the Earths surface ClimateMaster Slide 15 15 maintaining a nearly constant temperature throughout the year just below ground Slide 16 16 Earth is a better Energy Source ClimateMaster Slide 17 17 The Earth is the Source of Heat in Winter Outdoor air design temperature: -5F 72F 50F A geothermal heat pump transfers underground heat into the building to provide heating ClimateMaster Slide 18 18 and an Efficient Place to Reject or Store Heat in Summer Outdoor air design temperature: 95F 74F 50F A geothermal heat pump transfers heat from the building into the ground to provide cooling ClimateMaster Slide 19 using Heat Pump Technology ClimateMaster 19 Geothermal heat pumps circulate water through a sealed underground piping loop where it is naturally warmed (or cooled) by the Earth Slide 20 20 Geothermal System Components Ground loop Three basic designs Horizontal Open Loop Vertical ClimateMaster Slide 21 21 Vertical Closed-Loop Installation Drilling Pipe Loop Insertion Heat Fusing Inside Connection ClimateMaster Slide 22 22 Geothermal Heat Pump Efficiency 1 unit of energy from the grid Plus: 3-5 units of free energy from the earth Yields: 4-6 units of energy for the building 400-600% Efficient ClimateMaster Slide 23 23 Total Geothermal System ClimateMaster Slide 24 24 Geothermal Equipment The equipment keeps getting better COPs (% efficiency) are reaching 5 (500%) Hybrid units can greatly reduce installation costs Fits load control and peak time pricing Can be tied to a gas furnace for load control Water to water units can support thermal storage for expanded peak clipping ClimateMaster Slide 25 25 Geothermal Heat Pumps Self-contained heating, cooling and hot water Slide 26 ClimateMaster 26 Geothermal Heat Pumps are one of the Most Effective and Deployable Technologies producing the lowest carbon dioxide emissions, including all source effects, of all available space-conditioning technologies (EPA, 1993) Slide 27 ClimateMaster 27 Slide 28 ClimateMaster 28 Ground Source Heat Pumps offer the greatest potential for energy efficiency of any existing technology (EPRI Dec 2009) Slide 29 ClimateMaster 29 Buildings Dominate U.S. Energy Use and Carbon Emissions with Heating, Cooling, and Water Heating being the Largest Contributors Thermal Loads Heating 9.2% Cooling 4.3% Hot Water 3.8% Total 17.3% ~ 20% of all U.S. Carbon Emissions Slide 30 ClimateMaster 30 HVAC Energy Use Comparisons Reduces energy consumption by 50% Conventional HVAC - Home Geothermal HVAC - Home Slide 31 ClimateMaster 31 Ordinary Furnace Efficiency 5 - 30% of Energy Lost (unusable energy) To Outdoors Through the Chimney Only 70 - 95% of Energy Purchased Gets Into the Home (usable energy) 1 Unit Of Fuel Used To Generate Heat (Purchased) Slide 32 ClimateMaster 32 Geothermal Heat Pump Efficiency 1 unit of energy from the grid Plus: 3-5 units of free energy from the earth Yields: 4-6 units of energy for the building 400-600% Efficient Slide 33 ClimateMaster 33 Geothermal Heat Pumps Demonstrated Residential Savings 1300 Square Foot Habitat for Humanity Home Energy Savings - Residential Slide 34 ClimateMaster 34 Habitat for Humanity Average of 16 Homes - Total Site Energy Use in 2007 47% Site Energy Savings Slide 35 ClimateMaster 35 Demand Impacts Each residential heat pump linked to geothermal system can reduce peak loads in (US DOE) Summer by 12 KW vs. AC Winter by 48 KW vs. AAHP & ER Residential (Electric Program) Over 10 million residential consumers Assume just 1 KW reduction per installation 10,000 MW demand reduction Slide 36 ClimateMaster 36 Demand Impacts GHP Value.5 kW/ ton Slide 37 ClimateMaster 37 Demand Impacts ClimateMaster is working with the Utility Geothermal Working Group and Oak Ridge National Lab to develop a national GSHP demand and energy savings map using eQuest (DOE 2) modeling for utility program managers. Austin TX model results Slide 38 ClimateMaster 38 Demand Impacts 4 ton Geo vs. Conventional Home Peaks Denver Colorado Avg. of 2.1kw savings Slide 39 ClimateMaster 39 Energy Savings - Commercial Demonstrated Commercial Buildings Savings Slide 40 ClimateMaster 40 A Tale of Two Buildings Palo Alto, CA Oklahoma City, OK PROJECT RESULTS FROM: A side by side Comparison of a Ground Source Heat Pump System vs. Conventional HVAC System between two identical buildings. Slide 41 ClimateMaster 41 Oklahoma City - Garrett Buildings Conventional 15,000 sq ft Built in 1987 Conventional Roof Top VAV Building GHP 20,000 sq ft Built in 1997 40 boreholes drilled 250 feet deep on 20 foot centers and 3/4 inch PE pipe 16 Ceiling Mounted Units Slide 42 ClimateMaster 42 Garrett Office Buildings Actual Metered Annual Energy Use 2006-2007 47% Site Energy Savings Slide 43 ClimateMaster 43 Garrett Office Buildings Monthly Peak Demand 2006-2007 35% Peak Demand Reduction Slide 44 ClimateMaster 44 Load Factor (4 yr Monthly Average) Slide 45 ClimateMaster 45 Palo Alto, California Buildings Slide 46 ClimateMaster 46 2183 and 2185 Park Blvd Buildings Two Stories 10,000 sq ft each Built in the 1960s Slide 47 ClimateMaster 47 Palo Alto Buildings Energy Costs construction Slide 48 ClimateMaster 48 Hourly Load Curve Sample 08/22/06 Slide 49 ClimateMaster 49 Proven Benefits: GSHP retrofit of 4,000 buildings/homes at Fort Polk - 1994 Evaluation showed 33% kWh savings, 43% lower summer peak kW demand, and improved load factor (0.52 to 0.62) ORNL/CON-460 @ www.ornl.gov/sci/ees/etsd/btric/ground-source.shtml Typical distribution feeder (16 in all) Buried phone line to nearest pedestal Current transducers on secondary leads to existing meter New recording watt meter, modem, and phone line To recorder Armys existing meter Slide 50 ClimateMaster 50 Geothermal Heat Pumps The difference in the before and after system efficiency = carbon emissions savings. 300,000 GSHP retrofits could save approximately the carbon emissions of a 500 mW coal plant (which serves 300,000 +/- homes!) Slide 51 ClimateMaster 51 Tri State Market Kansas City, MO Vs. Louisville, KY Kansas City 4,750 heating degree days 1,325 cooling degree days Louisville 4,610 Heating degree days 1,443 cooling degree days Slide 52 ClimateMaster 52 Tri State Market US DOE Build America model home 2,400 sq. feet 6 tons of heating & cooling Gas water heater GSHP with Desuperheater (TTS) Vs. Packaged Single Zone Unit with Gas Furnace 10 SEER central AC 78 AFUE gas furnace Slide 53 ClimateMaster 53 Tri State Market Slide 54 ClimateMaster 54 Tri State Market Slide 55 ClimateMaster 55 Tri State Market Combined Electric & gas savings (site Btu) Geo 25,913 kWh X 3,413 Btu/kWh = 88,441,069 Btu 7,025,000 gas Btus 95,466,069 annual Btus Conventional gas & AC 19,634 kWh X 3,413 Btu/kWh = 67,010842 Btu 194,972,000 gas Btus 261,982,842 annual Btus 63.6 % annual savings site Btu Slide 56 ClimateMaster 56 Tri State Market 4.5 kW /.8 kW/ton 4kW/.7 kW per ton 40% peak demand reduction Slide 57 ClimateMaster 57 Tri State Market Slide 58 ClimateMaster 58 Tri State Market Slide 59 ClimateMaster 59 Tri State Market Slide 60 ClimateMaster 60 Tri State Market Slide 61 ClimateMaster 61 Existing Housing Stock (# Homes) - 2005 Gas 13.1million Electric 1.3 million Propane 1.1 million Heat Pump 800k Oil 700k Other 700k Gas 5.3 million Electric 1.0 million Propane 800k Heat Pump 400k Oil 200k Other 200k Gas 5.7 million Electric 4.3 million Propane 800k Heat Pump 900k Other 400k EIA 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey Slide 62 ClimateMaster 62 Geo Heat Pump Retrofits in Existing Homes - Example of Annual Energy and Carbon Savings Potential CO 2 10.0 MMT Summer Peak 1.9 GW Winter Peak 0.3 GW Electric 6.8 Billio