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Physical ScienceSemester 2 Exam Study GuideChapter 10: Nuclear ChangesDefine: nuclear forcefissionfusionchain reaction nuclear radiationradioactive decaygamma rayneutron emissionalpha particles beta decayhalf-lifeConcepts: How are chemical reactions and nuclear reactions different? How does a chain reaction start? Where does background (natural) radiation come from? What are the advantages and disadvantages of Nuclear Energy? What are the accomplishments and discoveries of Marie Curie? Describe the four types of radiation. If a gamma ray is let off as radiation, does it change the mass of an atom/isotope? An alpha particle is the nucleus of a __________________ atom. What makes an atom stable or unstable? Calculate half-life problems.Chapter 11: Motion Define: MotionFrame of referencedistancedisplacementvelocityaccelerationforcepositive accelerationnegative accelerationcentripetal accelerationnet forcebalanced forceunbalanced forcefriction static frictionsliding friction (kinetic)rolling friction (kinetic) Concepts: Give examples of distance vs. displacement What is the difference between speed and velocity? List the four fundamental forces. Know all of the formulas and units of measure for velocity, acceleration and force and calculate word problems (you may use your formula chart and a calculator on the test). What are the weakest and strongest fundamental forces? Give examples of the three types of friction. Which is the strongest friction? Give examples of how to reduce or increase friction. Understand the difference between balanced and unbalanced forces and give examples. Read and interpret a distance vs. time graph and a velocity vs. time graph like the examples below: Know how to complete net force problems like these: Chapter 12: AccelerationDefine: AccelerationAir resistanceForceFree-fallFrictionGravityMassPhysicsProjectile motionSpeedVelocityInertiaWeightTerminal velocityNet force Concepts: Know Newtons three laws of motion and be able to give examples and explanations of each. What happens when an object is in free fall and the air resistance and gravity are equal? Complete calculations using the formulas for weight and force. Know that orbiting is an example of projectile motion. Give other examples of projectile motion. Air resistance is also known as a type of ________________. When a feather and hammer are dropped at the same time on the moon, which falls first? Why? What is the law of inertia? The gravitational force between two objects is affected by the mass and ___________ of the objects. Know the SI units for all of the terms above (where applicable) Give examples of interacting force pairsChapter 13: EnergyDefine:WorkPowerEnergyPotential energyKinetic energyHeatTemperatureThermodynamicsSound energyElectrical energyMechanical energyThermal energyNuclear energyLight (radiant) energyLaw of Conservation of EnergyOpen systemClosed systemIsolated system Concepts: You must be able to use the formula for work, power, potential energy and kinetic energy. This includes labeling your answer with the correct unit of measure. Understand the difference between energy TRANSFERRING and TRANSFORMING Identify and create examples of energy transformations. Identify examples of open, closed and isolated systems. Read and analyze a bar graph or pie chart and explain the energy transformationChapter 15 & 16: WavesDefine: WaveMediumAmplitudeWavelength PeriodfrequencyTransverse waveLongitudinal waveDoppler effectInfrasoundUltrasoundResonancesonarreflectiondiffractionrefractionconstructive interferencedestructive interferencestanding wavesConcepts: Understand the difference between mechanical waves and electromagnetic waves (506) Waves transfer ___________. (507)Energy may _________________________________________________________. (507)Most waves are caused by _____________________. (508)What is a transverse wave? Draw and label the different parts of a transverse wave. (511)What is a longitudinal wave? Draw and label the different parts of a longitudinal wave. (512)What is a surface wave, and how do they move? (513)label amplitude and wavelength. (514)The speed of the wave depends on the _______________________. (520)Explain and give examples of the Doppler Effect. (522)Pitch is determined by ___________________________________________________. (522)Understand and give examples of the following wave properties (starts on 524): Explain the properties of sound waves (starts on 543)speed of sound depends on the ____________. loudness is determined by ______________. pitch is determined by _______________. The speed of light depends on the _____________________. (explain) (555)The brightness of light depends on the _____________________. (explain) (555)Understand and explain The Electromagnetic Spectrum (super important!!!! ) (556-558)read and understand Figure 6 on page 556-557The colors you perceive ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________. (564)Objects have the color of the ________________________________ they reflect. (564)Understand Figure 6 on page 564, and how color works.Chapter 17: ElectricityDefine:Electric ChargeStatic ChargeConductor InsulatorSemiconductorElectric ForceElectric FieldPotential DifferenceCell Electric CurrentResistanceResistors Electric circuitShort circuitOpen CircuitClosed CircuitSeries CircuitParallel CircuitConcepts:Know the SI units for resistance, current and voltageGive examples of insulators, semiconductors and conductorsKnow the differences between AC and DC. Know the similarities and differences in a series and parallel circuitHow does static charge occur? Also, how does lightning work? Know the basic electricity contributions of Tesla, Edison and FranklinLike charges _____________ and opposite charges ______________. Potential Difference is measured in volts. Conductors have __________ resistance. Insulators have ___________ resistance.Draw and/or read a series and parallel circuit using symbolsPhysical ScienceSemester 2 Exam Formula ChartName_______________________________________Period_________Directions: You may not alter this document in any way, and you may not cut or paste anything onto this formula chart. You may include the formulas below to use on your exam and use any additional space ON THE FRONT for extra information from the study guide. TermFormulaSI unit/sDefineSpeed/velocityAccelerationForceWorkPowerPotential EnergyKinetic Energy


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