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Apprenticeship in Germany Lapprendistato in Germania Festival del Lavoro, Brescia (Italy) Workshop21 June 2012 Dove si incontra il lavoro: Lapprendistato in Europa Jessica Erbe Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB, Bonn) Slide 2 Contents of the Presentation 2 Locating the apprenticeship in the German education system Understanding the dual apprenticeship system (training purpose, main principles of the VET system, formalisation, organisation or: what's dual about it?) Financial aspects of the apprenticeship Key Figures on the apprenticeship (entry rates, age & prior education of pupils, apprentices & companies, duration, success, employment) Role of social partners Abbreviation: (I)VET stands for (initial) vocational education and training Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Slide 3 Continuing education Education System in Germany (simplified) 3 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Dual system 45% ISCED 3B Lower secondary school Secondary level I 10 (12) to 15/16 years Primary level 6 to 10 (12) years Secondary level II 16 to 19 years with re-entries between sectors Tertiary level over 19 years Primary school Full-time voc. school 15% ISCED 3B Upper secondary school 40% ISCED 3A Intermediate school Grammar school Universities ISCED 5A+6 Continuing vocational training ISCED 5B Slide 4 Acquisition of employability Acquisition of knowledge of work processes Self-management and individual responsibility Goals Comprehensive learning Problem and product orientation Task and experience reference Inter-disciplinary character Fea- tures What is the Training Purpose of the Apprenticeship? 4 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Learning at the work place Slide 5 1. Occupation-based approach (Berufskonzept) Employability through a comprehensive bundle of competencies (skills, knowledge and cross cutting key competencies) Federal state regulated occupational profiles and training regulations Individual and social integration by a foothold in a skilled occupation A foundation for lifelong learning 2. Principle of consensus between employer organisations, trade unions, federal government and federal states (Lnder) government 3. Shared responsibilities Two sites of learning: companies and vocational schools Shared responsibility between government and economy Shared responsibility between federal level and federal state level What are the main principles of VET system? 5 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Slide 6 National Standards (Vocational Training Regulations) Designation of the training occupation Duration of traineeship Profile of the training occupation General training plan Examination requirements 2011350 training regulations 1996 - 201082 New training regulations 230 modernised training regulations examplemechatronic On what basis are people trained? 6 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Slide 7 In-Company Training Apprenticeship contract Chambers and other competent bodies Trainer Vocational Training Act Company training schedule Enterprise Training regulations Compulsory vocational school District Presidents or School supervisor Vocational school teacher School acts of the states Curriculum Vocational school Framework curricula Counselling and monitoring Training personnel Legal basis for training Learning venues Legal basis for training relationship Legal basis for recognised occupations Content of training School Training What's Dual about the German Dual System? Basic Elements 7 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) FundingTraining enterprises States, districts and municipalities Slide 8 Figures for the year 2007/ 30.9 billion EUR (in total) State Who finances the apprenticeship? 8 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Slide 9 Why? What are the Costs and Benefits for Companies? 9 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Source: Walden et al. 2008 (BIBB) Average amounts per apprentice per year Slide 10 Who Enters the Apprenticeship System? 10 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Level of school leaving certificate of all new apprentices in 2009 (100%) Average age of apprenticeship beginner 19+ years Source: BIBB-Datenreport 2011 Entries into IVET 2010 Dual system IVET560 00051% Full-time school IVET220 00020% Transition/Integration320 00029% grammar school (could go to univ.)20% intermediate school43% secondary general school33% no school leaving certificate4% Slide 11 Number of newly concluded training contracts in 2010 male 57,7 %; female 42,3 % 560.073 Number of apprentices in total out of which publicly funded 1.571.457 10,5% Source: BIBB-Datenreport 2011, Figures for Germany Key Figures on the Apprenticeship in the Dual System 11 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Companies offering training (2010)470.000 = 22,5% of all companies Average training allowance 678 Training contracts' termination rate (2009) 22,6% Final examinations' success rate 90,2% Number of training profiles350 Regular duration2 3,5 years Slide 12 How is the Labour Market Situation after the Apprenticeship? 12 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) (in 2011)GermanyEU 15-24 year olds8,1 %22,7 % 25-74 year olds5,2 %8,4 % Total5,5 %9,8 % (in 2009)Germany No vocational qualification21,9 % Vocational qualification (IVET/CVET)6,6 % Higher education degree (ISCED 5A)2,5 % Total8,4 % Overall unemployment rate by age Unemployment rate by qualification Companies' in-take rate after graduation61 % Employment in the company where the apprenticeship was made Slide 13 National level Participation of representatives of the trade unions and employers in the development of standards; Official recommendations relating to all fields of VET Regional level Federal states: Recommendations regarding the coordination between school and enterprise Competent bodies: Counselling; monitoring / quality assurance; examinations; certificates Sectoral level Negotiations on the supply of apprenticeships; wage agreements covering apprenticeship pay Company levelPlanning and carrying out training in the enterprises Governance: Role of the Social Partners 13 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Slide 14 Enter, amend and delete training contracts Conduct interim and final examinations Verify the suitability of training firms and the aptitude of training staff Advise companies and trainees Competent Bodies Support and supervise periods of training that trainees complete abroad Supervise the provision of vocational training preparation, initial vocational training and retraining Governance: Responsibilities of Competent Bodies 14 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) = chambers of skilled crafts = chambers of industry & commerce Slide 15 Thank you for your attention. Jessica Erbe Bundesinstitut fr Berufsbildung Tel.: +49 228 107 2403 e-Mail: erbe@bibb.deerbe@bibb.de 15 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Slide 16 Established: 1970 Legal basis: Federal training act 1969, reformed 2005 Legal supervision: Ministry of Education and Research The management: Scientific Advisory Board (7 members) Staff:630 Budget 2010: 36,5 million Euro Tasks: The Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) 16 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Research Development Policy Advice President and Deputy President The Board (Hauptausschuss) Slide 17 BIBB analyses structural developments in training place market and in continuing education and training develops and updates initial and continuing training occupations conducts international comparative research on VET carries out early identification of future skills requirements develops concepts for the training of in-company trainers supports modern VET centres as a supplement to in-company initial and continuing training assesses the quality of VET distance learning programmes manages and supervises national and international programmes designed to continuously develop VET Tasks of the Federal Institute for VET (BIBB) 17 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Slide 18 Higher education entry rates* (in %) 18 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Slide 19 Educational attainment by ISCED levels ISCED 1+2ISCED 3+4ISCED 5+6Early school leavers Germany14,559,126,411,1 EU 272846,825,214,4 Source: Eurostat, EU Labour Force Survey, Eurostat database, 2009 19 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Slide 20 Institutional framework 20 Apprenticeship in Germany (Jessica Erbe, BIBB; 21 June 2012 Brescia) Source: Education report working group at the Max Planck Institute for Education Research 1990 State level: State government Minister of Education Conference of the Ministers of Education Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) Employers associationsTrade unions Competent Body (Chamber) Examination boards Vocational school In-company training Works council Youth representative Framework curricula Curricula Dual system of vocational education and training Training ordinances, Laws Federal level: FM of Education and Research (BMBF) in cooperation with other Federal Ministries responsible Federal Institute for Vocational Education and Training (BIBB) Slide 21 State (Federal Government) Instruments: laws (e.g. BBIG) and statutory orders (e.g. training regulations) Training Companies (companies providing training) Instruments: training contracts and training programmes Competent Bodies (chambers of skilled crafts, chambers of industry

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