www.derby.ac.uk www.derby.ac.uk/icegs keeping your clients happy professor tristram hooley
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Keeping your clients happy
Professor Tristram Hooley www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Overviewwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Overviewwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs
www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs What is satisfaction?www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Definitionfulfilment of one's wishes, expectations, or needs, or the pleasure derived from this.the payment of a debt or fulfilment of an obligation or claim.www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Levels of impact (See Kirkpatrick)www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs ReactionHow do users of services react to them?Use of feedback forms and happy sheets.
Voices of Users (Vilhjlmsdttir et al., 2011) is a summary of the experience of career guidance clients in Nordic countries. It found that the majority of participants were satisfied with the service that they had received and felt that the counsellor with whom they had worked had been supportive and understanding.
www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs LearningDid the individual learn something as a result of the intervention. If you tested them before and after would something have changed?
Learning for now or later (Kuijpers & Meijers, 2012) found that students career competencies (reflection, exploration, proactivity and networking) were correlated with the presence of a practice based and inquiry based curriculum which allowed them to engage in career conversations. www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs BehaviourHow do individuals behaviour change following an intervention.Can you measure what they do differently?
A career workshop was developed in Switzerland to promote the career choice readiness of young adolescents. In an evaluation of the workshop with 334 Swiss students in the 7th grade, Hirschi & Lge found that three months after the workshop, participants had significantly increased their career decidedness, career planning and career exploration.
www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs ResultsWhat actually happens as a result of your intervention?Do people get jobs, better qualifications etc.
A report in Northern Ireland (Regional Forecasts, 2008) examined the impact of the Educational Guidance Service for Adults on the Northern Ireland economy. The study used a mix of quantitative and qualitative methods, including detailed analysis of the services client data, to estimate the economic value of the service. This was estimated to be 9.02 net additional tax revenue for every 1 of public money invested. www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Is satisfaction important?www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Why is customer satisfaction important?Customer satisfaction is an important outcome of career guidance. Providers of services have a duty to attend to their customers and to ensure that they are happy with the service provided. Measuring customers satisfaction offers one way to do this.
www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs CritiquesIt may not be related to the quality of service (Crowley,1992). It may not be related to learning, behaviour change or results. Customer satisfaction does not necessarily make clients more likely to continue to access career support or complete the course of interviews that they had begun (Healy, 2001)Careers advisers judgements about how satisfying interviews were are largely independent from clients judgements (Millar & Brotherton, 2001).
14www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Overviewwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Key determinants of customer satisfactionwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Individual factorsOlder people may typically be less satisfied (Noble,2010; BIS, 2012). No clear differences on gender, disability.Some contradictory studies exist on educational level. Clients expectations about what they are getting. Incongruence with the counsellors expectations = lower client satisfaction (Whitaker et al., 2004).
www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Contextual factorsE.g. parking, waiting timeThese are best viewed as hygiene factors.While they can lead to dissatisfaction if not well performed, they contribute relatively little to positive customer satisfaction (BIS, 2013).
18www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Overviewwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs What do you do that satisfies people?
www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Delivery IThe following correlate with customer satisfactionThe job satisfaction of the counsellor Informing customer expectations prior to the interaction.Clear contracting and clarification of objectives (Healy, 2001).The mode of delivery21www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Key concept: Working allianceWorking alliancecounsellor/client agreement about the goals of the interaction; their agreement about the tasks leading to these goals; and their emotional relationship
www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Delivery IIThe client should feel that the counsellor/adviser has listened to them and understood their enquiry and circumstances (Healy, 2001; Millar & Brotherton, 2001)The provision of useful information and advice that supports progression. Particularly where this introduces ideas that the client had not thought of (Healy, 2001; Millar & Brotherton, 2001; BIS, 2013). Advisers who are helpfulness and professional (BIS, 2013).Feeling that the careers adviser has spent enough time with you (Millar & Brotherton, 2013).
www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Post-intervention factorsWhen should customer satisfaction be measured? The length of time will influence the level of satisfaction. Some participants want more follow up (Healy, 2001). Gati et al. (2006) have found that customer satisfaction for users of a career assessment varies depending on the outcome. People are more likely to report satisfaction with a career assessment tool if they have gone into one of the careers that they were recommended to go into.
24www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Overviewwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Why evaluate?Evaluation enables us to: examine what we dothink about how we can improve it decide on whether it was worth doingprovide others with a summary to help them to understand what was done.
www.derby.ac.uk/icegswww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs What is evaluation?When people seek to evaluate what they are doing as part of an attempt to learn and improve, they are usually undertaking a formative evaluation, so called because it is undertaken to inform what is done while the activity is still in progress. We would like to find out how to do these things betterWhen people evaluate to make a judgement on the value of a particular activity and to draw out what has been learnt, it is usually a summative evaluation; so called because it attempts to create a summary of what has been achieved and what the impacts have been. We would like to find out how well these things work
www.derby.ac.uk/icegswww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Evidence based practice and policywww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Discussion: Listening to customers How could you ensure that you listen to your customers in ways that help you to improve your service. www.derby.ac.uk/icegswww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Publish or perishToo little evaluation and impact work on careers work is published.
Writing up your evaluation for broader circulation is an important way to support the development of the sector. Self publicationJournal publicationPartnership with academicsUsing external consultants
www.derby.ac.uk/icegswww.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs Write it downMy main reason for writing is simple: I do not know what I think until I have written it. In conversation one can get away with loose, exploratory thinking, but in writing it down one has to weigh up the arguments and the evidence, and decide what it all means and where one stands. It is hard work, but important; and if published, it adds to the body of knowledge on which others can draw. Tony Watts
www.derby.ac.uk/icegs www.derby.ac.ukwww.derby.ac.uk/icegs References and resourcesCrowley, T. (1992). Computer-aided careers guidance: An investigation involving and artificial system. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 20, 344351.Department for Business, Innovation & Skills (2012). Next Step Satisfaction and Progression Surveys (Research Paper 88). London: DBIS.Gati I., Gadassi R., Shemesh N. (2006). The predictive validity of a computer-assisted career decision-making system: A six-year follow-up. Journal of Vocational Behavior. 68(2): 205-219.Healy, C. (2001). A follow-up of adult career counselling clients of a university extension centre. Career Development Quarterly, 49: 363-373.Hirschi, A. & Lge, D. (2008). Increasing the career choice readiness of young adolescents: an evaluation study. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 8(2): 95-110.Kuijpers, M., & Meijers, F. (2012). Learning for now or later? Career competencies among students in higher vocational education in the Netherlands. Studies in Higher Education, 37(4), 449-467.Millar, R. & Brotherton, C. (2001). Expectations, recall and evaluation of careers guidance interviews by pupils and careers adv