working with disks
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DESCRIPTIONWorking with Disks. Lesson 4. Skills Matrix. Partition Styles. MBR – Master Boot Record GPT – GUID (globally unique identifier) Partition Table. Chapter 4. Master Boot Record -- MBR. Default partition style for x86 systems Uses a Partition Table to store drive geometry - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Working with DisksLesson 4
Technology SkillObjective DomainObjective #Configuring Data ProtectionConfigure data protection6.4Using the Back Up Files WizardUse Windows backup and restore6.4Using Complete PCUse Complete PC to create an image6.4
Restoring Previous VersionsRestore damaged or deleted files by using previous versions6.4
Chapter 4MBR Master Boot RecordGPT GUID (globally unique identifier) Partition Table
Chapter 4Default partition style for x86 systemsUses a Partition Table to store drive geometryUses Hidden sectors to store system informationSupports volumes up to 2 terabytesSupports up to 4 primary partitions or 3 primary partitions and one extended partition per disk
Master Boot Record -- MBR
Chapter 4Default partition style for x64 systemsUses an partitions rather than hidden sectors to store system informationUses EFI (Extensible Firmware Interface) to boot the driveUses primary and backup partition tables to improve integritySupports up to 128 partitionsSupports Volumes up to 18 exabytes
GUID Partition Table -- GPT
Chapter 4Basic Storage compatible with other OSConsists of primary and extended partitionsSupports up to four partitions (per single hard drive)Laptop computers use only basic storageWindows Vista can be installed only onto basic storage type partitionsDynamic Storage supported by Windows 2000/XP/VistaConfigured as dynamic disksDynamic disks can combine two or more physical disks into one dynamic diskDynamic disks divided into volumes
Uses Primary Partitions, Extended Partitions and Logical drives to organize dataAdequate for most personal computers.Basic Disks
Chapter 4PRIMARYFunctions as a physically separate diskCan host an OSCan be marked as active (and used to boot from)Up to 4 are supported or 3 + 1 ExtendedEach is formatted and assigned a drive letterEXTENDEDCannot host an OSCannot be active partitionBasic disk can only host 1 Extended but unlimited logical partitionsDo not format extended partition, but the logical drivesPrimary and Extended Partitions
Chapter 4Volume a portion of a dynamic disk that functions as a separate diskEach volume is assigned a drive letterOnly Windows 2000, XP and Vista can access data on volumesThere are three types of volumes Simple volumeSpanned volumeStriped volumes
Dynamic Storage - Volumes
Chapter 4Contains space from a single dynamic drive
Dynamic Disk -- Simple volume
Chapter 4Consists of disk space on 2-32 dynamic drives
Dynamic Disk -- Spanned volume
Chapter 4stores data in equal stripes on 2 - 32 dynamic drives
Dynamic Disk -- Striped volume
Chapter 4FAT (FAT16) up to 4GB (not supported by Vista)For backward compatibility with other operating systemsAllows easy upgrade from another OSEnables multi boot systems to share data drivesFAT32 up to 32GBused to support larger drives, offers multi boot shared drives with Windows 98/95NTFS (preferred file system) up to 4TBOffers larger volume supportOffers compression and encryptionSecurity
File Systems Summary
Chapter 4NTFSRecoverable file systemLocal file securitySmall cluster sizeSupports mirroringFast searchesBuilt-in compression and encryption
FAT32Most compatible systemLess overhead and is best for drives < 1GBUse DOS to access active partition from a floppyComparison of File Systems
How FAT works?
Directory TableFilenameStarting ClusterIPC144.txt2Win133.doc5
File Allocation TableClusterStatusComment11reserved23start cluster IPC144.txt
3999End cluster IPC144.txt
57First cluster Win133.doc
6999Start/ End Sched.pdf79Pointer to cluster 99999End cluster Win133.doc
How NTFS works?Resident to MFTNon Resident to MFTDATADATADATA
Header InformationStandard InformationFilenameData Area (2KB)Security Descriptor
Header InformationStandard InformationFilenameExtended attribute maps VCNs to LCNsSecurity Descriptor
Chapter 4Disk Management Snap-In
Chapter 4Managing PermissionsNTFS permissionsControl access to files and folders on NTFS volumesShare permissionsControl access to folders over a network. To access a file over a network, the user must have the appropriate share AND NTFS permissions
Chapter 4Permissions are organized into ACLs (access control lists)Each list consists of a collection of individual permissions called Access Control Entries (ACE)Permissions are stored with the file or folder being protected and is not part of the user accountWindows Permission Architecture
Chapter 4Creates backup of Files and folders to a network share, DVD, CD or other hard diskCreates a backup of the entire drive using an image based utility called Complete PCRestore Files and folders that were previously backed up or an entire computer driveUsing Backup and Restore Centre
Chapter 4You LearnedWindows Vista uses two hard disk partition styles: MBR and GPT.Windows Vista supports two disk types: basic disks and dynamic disks.Basic disks can have up to four partitions: three primary partitions and a fourth usually being an extended partition, on which you can create multiple logical drives.
Chapter 4You Learned (cont.)Windows Vista supports three types of dynamic volumes: simple, spanned, and striped.You use the Disk Management snap-in for MMC to manage disks.Windows Vista has several sets of permissions, which operate independently of each other, including NTFS permissions, share permissionsPermissions are organized into ACLsBackup and Restore can backup files, folders and complete PCs
**Before a new drive can be used it must be first partitioned and second formatted.
Partitioning divides the drive into major sections (or the entire drive can be used as one partition)-Formatting commands build a data structure on the drive to store files and work inside of a partition. We will talk about formatting a little later. Right now you need to understand that there are 2 types of partition styles.
Vista is the first Microsoft OS to support 2 partitioning styles for x86 drives. XP used MBR for all x86 installations and used GPT for x64 installations.Vista supports both styles for x86 installations. Lets compare both types.**Before you can format you must decide which file system do you want. There is FAT16 not discussed used with W95 and NT -- historyFAT32 NTFSOnly certain operating systems can read from or write to NTFS drives.DOS, Windows 95, 98 and ME cannot.Therefore, if you are going to be dual booting the computer (running more than one operating system), you must understand that these other OSs will not be able to read from the partitions or possibly not even boot up.
*The directory table is a file maintained by the OS that contains a list of all files on the disk and the number of the cluster that contains the start of the file. The Directory and FAT table work together to keep track of the files on a disk.
The file Win133.doc for example begins at cluster 5.
Each cluster is listed in the FAT, along with the number that indicates the status of the cluster. If the status is 1, the cluster is reserved for the OS. If the status is 0 the cluster is empty and new data can be stored there. If the status is 999 the cluster contains the end of a file. Other status numbers indicate the sector that holds more data for a file. For example, Win133.doc begins at cluster 5, but cluster 5 sets a pointer to cluster 7, which points to cluster 8 and lastly cluster 9 to retrieve all parts of the file. Notice that Win133.doc is NOT contiguous meaning that all related parts of the file are not side by side.
You can see the beginnings of fragmentation. When a file is to be saved, FAT stores the file in the first available space, even if that space is too small for the file, as you see with Win133.doc. Overtime this fragmentation can greatly lessen read performance.
When you retrieve a file, the OS looks through the Directory table to find the file name and the starting cluster of the file. The OS passes this information to the device driver which in turn communicates with the hard drive controller to more the read-write heads to the beginning cluster. It takes longer to access a file stored in noncontiguous clusters than one stored in contiguous clusters because the read-write heads must more farther to find the next section of the file.
When you delete a file, the OS changes the status of the appropriate clusters in the FAT. For example, if you deleted the Win133.doc file the status of the clusters 5,7,8,9 would be set to 0. The actual information remains on the drive. This rather interesting Windows feature gives rise to the Recycle Bin which stores a copy of all files with a 0 status and if you inadvertently delete a file, the Recycle Bin can restore it by resetting the files status. The actual file data never moved.*FAT uses 2 components to manage files a Directory table and an Allocation table of data files. In contrast, the NTFS file system uses a relational database called the Master File Table (MFT) as its core component. The MFT consists of rows of file records and columns of file attributes. It contains at least one entry for every file on an NTFS volume, including the MFT itself.
By default the 12.5% of the partition size is reserved for the MFT. This space, known as the MFT zone, is not used to store data unless the remainder of the volume becomes full.
Each row of the MFT contains information about each file. Including header information, such as version number, standard information such as date and time, filename and secur