what is morality

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  • 1.Chapter 1 What is Morality?
    Ethics: Theory and Practice 9thEd
    Thiroux and Krasemann
    Adapted from power points created by: Kim Waltz
    Northcentral Technical College 2007

2. 2
Introduction to the Chapter:
Objectives
Define philosophy and explain the relationship of ethics to it.
Define key terms concerning ethics or morality.
Explain various approaches to the study of morality.
Understand what morality is and how it differs from aesthetics, nonmoral behavior and manners.
Understand to whom morality applies.
Have some idea of where morality comes from.
Distinguish between morality and the law.
Distinguish between morality and religion.
Understand why humans should be moral.
3. 3
Morality
Write a definition of Morality
4. 4
Morality
Dilbert Minisode Ethics
Ethical Issues in this cartoon?
5. 5
What is Philosophy?
Philosophy literally means love of wisdom.
Comes from the Greek words
Philia - meaning love or friendship
Sophia - meaning wisdom
Is concerned with three areas
epistemology study of knowledge
metaphysics the study of the nature of reality
ethics the study of morality
6. 6
Epistemology:
The study of knowledge, belief, truth, falsity, certainty, and perception.
What is knowledge?
what is truth?
What is reality and perception?
optical illusions
Are there differing realities?
How do differing realities change peoples perceptions of what is right and wrong?
7. 7
Metaphysics:
The study of what exists, the nature of what exists, cause and effect, freedom, and determinism-(the doctrine or belief that everything, including every human act, is caused by something that there is no real free will
What is freedom?
What do you mean my nature?
How do we know if one thing truly causes another? (examples of cause and effect)
8. 8
Cause and Effect
Does Death Penalty Deter Crime? : NPR
9. 9
Ethics:
The study of morality, good, bad, right, wrong, human conduct and behavior in a moral sense, and moral issues.
What are morals?
Define good, right, and wrong
Goodness decency, kindness, honesty, integrity, righteousness
Right correct, true, accurate, exact, precise
Wrong incorrect, mistaken, erroneous, not right, immoral, dishonest, unethical
10. 10
Amorality
Having no moral sense or being indifferent to right and wrong.
11. 11
Examples of amorality?
?????
12. 12
Non-moral:
The immoral person knowingly violates human moral standards, the amoral person may also violate moral standards because he or she has no moral sense
13. 13
Examples of Immorality
Is Killing Immoral?
Is downloading copyrighted material off a web site immoral?
Is misrepresenting someone else immoral?
Is undercutting someone else work immoral?
14. 14
Two approaches to the study of morality:
1.The scientific, or Descriptive, approach is used in the social sciences, and is concerned with how human beings do, in fact, behave
15. 15
Two approaches to the study of morality:
2. The Philosophical approach is divided into two parts
a.Normativeor prescriptive Ethics deals with norms or standards
b.Meta-ethicsor Analytical Ethics this approach is analytical in two ways.. (meta- means go beyond).
analyzes language
analyzes the rational foundations of ethical systems, or the logic and reasoning of various ethicists
Note: This book uses a combination of descriptive, normative, and analytical ethics with a heavy emphasis on using ethics in a HUMAN Community.. That means placing a larger focus on the normative.
16. 16
Two approaches to the study of morality:
The Philosophical approach is divided into two parts
a.Normative or prescriptive Ethics deals with norms or standards
b.Metaethics, or Analytical Ethics Looks at the logic of ethical Theorists
17. 17
Four Aspects related to Morality:
Religious Morality is concerned with human beings in relationship to supernatural beings (aka..theists).
Highway 61 Revisited - 07 Highway 61 Revisited
The Christian Right in America often are referred to as values voters does this imply that only religious people are moral and that others lack value, or what?
18. 18
Four Aspects related to Morality:
2.Morality from Nature?
Morality and nature concerned with human beings in relationship to nature.
19. 19
Four Aspects related to Morality:
Individual morality concerned with human beings in relation to themselves.
How does culture play into this?
20. 20
Four Aspects related to Morality:
Social morality noted as the most important aspect of morality is concerned with human beings in relation to other human beings.
Again how does Culture play into this?
21. 21
Where does morality come from?
Objective that is outside of human beings.
Subjective strictly within human beings
Or is morality a combination of the two?
There are 3 ways of looking at values when they are taken as being totally objective
They come from Supernatural Beings
There are moral laws somehow embedded within nature itself
The world and objects in it have value with or without the presence of valuing human beings.
22. 22
The Supernatural Theory: objective
The belief that values come from some higher supernatural being, or beings, or principle the Good (Plato); the gods (the Greeks and Romans); Yahweh or God (Jews); God and His son Jesus Christ (The Christians); Allah (the Muslims); and Brahma (the Hindus), just to name a few. Think 10 Commandments or the Five Pillars of Islam
23. 23
Brothers Karamazov
"If you were to destroy in mankind the belief in immortality, not only love but every living force maintaining the life of the world would at once be dried up. Moreover, nothing then would be immoral; everything would be lawful, even cannibalism."
24. 24
Criticisms of the Supernatural Law Theory:
Albert Einstein said I do not believe in morality of the individual, and I consider ethics to be an exclusively human concern with no superhuman authority behind it.
Its possible that supernatural exists, and this belief is based on faith, with no conclusive proof of the existence of a supernatural beings, or principle.
Which of the values from which of these supernatural beings do we use, since there are a variety in many parts of the world?
The author of your text is not saying that we should stop searching for truth from these sources, but it does mean that it is difficult to establish with any certainty that morality comes from this source or sources
25. 25
The Natural Law Theory:objective
Others believe that morality somehow is embodied in nature that there are natural laws.
Tomas Aquinas argued for this
Natural Law theory was also central to the ethical theory of Immanuel Kant
26. 26
Natural law
The Declaration of Independence
27. 27
Subjective:
Some hold the theory that values are totally subjective: that morality and values reside strictly within human beings and that there are no values or morality outside of them.
Others believe that the world and the objects in it embody values whether or not there are any human beings around to perceive and appreciate them.
28. 28
Values are both subjective and objective, determined by three variables
1.The first variable is the thing of value, or the thing valued (a car).
2. The second is a conscious being who values, the valuer (the auto-body repairman).
3. The context or situation in which the valuing takes place (on the street, in the showroom, at a car show).
29. 29
Where does morality come from? A Theory.
Values, then, would seem to come, most often from a complex interaction between conscious human beings and things in specific contexts.
By looking at the origins of the human being and social groups, we can see that complex interaction start to evolve
As we look at that process we will see that morality has risen largely from human needs and desires and that it is based upon human emotion and reason.
30. 30
Think of Morality Globally/Culturally
Are things different in other countries
Concept of Individualist and Collectivist Cultures
Other Cultures
Polygamy Discussion (materials in BB NWTC Site)
31. 31
Customary or Traditional and Reflective Morality
Customary or Traditional Morality
We are born into it
Based in tradition
Examples?
32. 32
Reflective Morality
Reflective morality involves the movement beyond conditioned or reactionary reactions and self-interest to principled action where acceptance of the principlesof one's behavior is the result of a careful reflection which takes into account the moral integrity of the agent and rights and interests of others.
33. 33
Reflective Morality:
Think about following blindly.. What has happened in the past when people have been sheep?
34. 34
35. 35
Morality and Law
Morality is not necessarily based on law
Jim Crow laws
Apartheid
There is a relationship because much of our morality has become embodied in our legal codes
Where do morality and legality part, when is acting illegally moral?
36. 36
Differences between morality and law
Morality provides the basic reasons for any significant laws
But even if laws were abolished tomorrow.. Most people would not go out an steal, rape, and kill people
Law needs morality just as morality needs law
Law is a public exp

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