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DEPARTMENT OF PHYSIOTHERAPY
Programme & Subject:Bachelor of Physiotherapy - B.P.T.(4½ Year Degree Course)
Introduction:The Bachelor of Physiotherapy program shall be under the Faculty of physiotherapy. The name of the Degree program shall be Bachelor of Physiotherapy (or, Bachelor of Physical Therapy) – B.P.T
LEARNING OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this curriculum is to delineate the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor skillsdeemed essential for completion of this program. At the completion of this course, the studentshould be –1. Able to perform as a competent physiotherapist who will be able to examine, evaluate, diagnose, plan, execute and document physiotherapy treatment independently or along with the multidisciplinary team.2. Able to evaluate patients for impairments and functional limitations and able to execute all routine physiotherapeutic procedures as per the evaluation.3. Able to operate and maintain physiotherapy equipment used in treatment of patient,Physiotherapy treatment planning (both electrotherapy and exercise therapy) & procedures independently.4. Able to provide patient education about various physiotherapeutic interventions to the patient and care givers.EXPECTATIONS FROM THE FUTURE PHYSIOTHERAPY GRADUATES1. Coursework entitles independent physiotherapy assessment and treatment by the graduates.2. The coursework is designed to train students to work as independent physiotherapists or in conjunction with a multidisciplinary team to diagnose and treat movement dysfunctions as per red and yellow flags.3. Course will develop skill in the graduate’s physical & functional diagnosis, treatment planning, management, and administration of physiotherapy treatment for the patient support.OUTCOME4. Graduates can find employment opportunities in Hospitals/Nursing homes/Sports Teams/Fitness Centers/Health club/ Schools, including pre-schools and special schools/
Research Center/Community Rehabilitation /Health planning boards/Health promotions services/Academic institute in both private and public sectors as well as in independent physiotherapy clinics.5. Physiotherapy graduate is encouraged to pursue further qualification to attain senior position in the professional field and to keep abreast with the recent advances, new technology and research. The professional should opt for continuous professional education credits offered by national and international institutes.Terminal OBJECTIVES (Expected Outcomes):1. The graduate will be a competent and reflective physiotherapy practitioner who can function safely and effectively while adhering to legal, ethical, and professional standards of practice in a multitude of physiotherapy settings for patients and clients across the lifespan and along the continuum of care from wellness and prevention to rehabilitation of dysfunction.2. The graduate will utilize critical inquiry and evidence based practice to make clinical decisions essential for autonomous practice.3. The graduate will function as an active member of professional and community organizations. The graduate will be a service-oriented advocate dedicated to the promotion and improvement of community health.4. The graduate will demonstrate lifelong commitment to learning and professional development.CRITERIA OF ELIGIBILITY FOR ADMISSION
As per the rules of Admission Committee for Professional Medical Educational Courses of Gujarat and/or Government of Gujarat.
A candidate applying for the degree of B.P.T being eligible for admission to thePhysiotherapy College affiliated to UGC recognized University must have passed the Higher Secondary (10+2) or equivalent examination recognized by any Indian University or a duly constituted Board and passed in Physics, Chemistry and Biology and English.
Or Candidates who have studied abroad and have passed the equivalent examination as per
the guidelines of the Association of Indian Universities to determine the eligibility and must have passed in the subjects: Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and English up to 12 th
Standard level. He /She has attained the age of 17 years as on 31st December of concerned year. He/she should furnish at the time of submission of application form, a certificate of
Physical fitness from a registered medical practitioner that the candidate is physically fit to undergo Physiotherapy course.
A candidate fulfilling above requirements will be provisionally admitted in the FirstYear of B.P.T Degree Programme, as per the rules of Admission Committee for Professional Medical Educational Courses of Gujarat and/or Government of Gujarat.
DURATION OF COURSE:B.P.T is 4½ years regular & fulltime degree Programme. The 4½ years includes 4 academic years for study and 6 months (minimum 1164 hours) of compulsory rotatory internship.Academic Year (52 weeks)Teaching (40 weeks) Exam (8weeks) Vacation (4 weeks)1st term (20 weeks)2nd term (20 weeks)
Preliminary (4 weeks)University (4 weeks)
Diwali vacationSummer vacation
Hours spent during public holidays should be adjusted at department/college level.
MEDIUM OF INSTRUCTION:English shall be the medium of instruction for all the subjects of study and for examination of the courseADMISSION TO THE PROGRAMME:Admission granted by the Central Admission Committee appointed by the State Government to any student shall be provisional till the Enrollment/ Registration/ Enlistment is made by the Marwadi University, and in case of admission is granted on the basis of provisional eligibility certificate, the condition & instruction given by the Marwadi University should be complied within the time limit fixed by the University, otherwise term kept and fees paid by such a student will be forfeited.ASSESSMENT PROCEDURE/ EVALUATION PROCEDURE:
The complete academic performance of a student is evaluated in-house by the concerned teacher /department except in the case of practical work where an external examiner shall be nominated for the practical/ viva voce.
The student’s performance in each year of BPT, in general, is evaluated based on:- In-year continuous assessment (CSE) Internal assessment (IA) End-year examination.(UNIVERSITY FINAL EXAM)
SCHEDULE OF EXAMINATION The scheme of examination for the B.P.T course shall be divided into 4 professional
examinations; each examination will be held at the end of each respective Academic year. There will be 1 internal examination (mid year) after completion of 4 months of onset of
Academic year. There will be 1 Preliminary exam before University exam. There will be University examination through written paper and/or practical examination
for 80% of the marks of the subject at the end of every Academic year. Internal evaluation is based on continuous assessment (CSE) and internal/ preliminary
examination (I.A), for 20% of the marks of the subject. Marwadi University will conduct final exam in month of July. Marwadi University will conduct supplementary exam for failed students after 4 months
and before 6 months from previous exam.
STUDENTS’ ASSESSMENT: The complete academic performance of a student is evaluated in-house by the concerned teacher /
department except in the final exam of practical work where an external examiner shall be nominated for the practical/viva voce.
The student’s performance in each course, in general, is evaluated based on in-year continuous assessment, internal assessment (preliminary examination) and end-year examination.
An in-year continuous assessment (also known as comprehensive assessment-CSE) is spread through the duration of course and is done by the teacher teaching the course with a weightage of 10 %. The assessment is done through various means
The performance of every student in each subject will be evaluated as follows: Subject with only theory components is as follows
SR. NO. ASSESSMENT TOOL WEIGHTAGE1 IN-YEAR CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT
(CSE)WHICH INCLUDES:1.Attendance2.Tutorials3.Assignment4.Surprise Test5.Class Test6.MCQ based quizzes 7.Presentations8.Projects9.Field visits10.Seminars11.Group discussions/activities etc
2 INTERNAL ASSESSMENT WHICH INCLUDES(IA)Internal &/Preliminary exam (compulsory) before University exam.
3 END YEAR EXAMINATION-(FINAL EXAM)University examination through written paper and/or practical examination
Subjects with practical component SR. NO. ASSESSMENT TOOL WEIGHTAGE1 IN-YEAR CONTINUOUS ASSESSMENT
(CSE)WHICH INCLUDES:1.Attendance2.Practicles demonstration/Tutorials3.Assignment4.Surprise Test5.Class Test6.MCQ based quizzes 7.Presentations8.Projects9.Field visits10.Seminars11.Group discussions/activities etc
2 INTERNAL ASSESSMENT WHICH INCLUDES(IA)Internal/Preliminary practical exam (compulsory) before University exam.
3 END YEAR EXAMINATION-(FINAL EXAM)University examination through by practical examination
A candidate must obtain minimum of 35% marks of internal evaluation (CSE+IA) in each paper for both theory and practical (wherever it is applicable) aggregately before appearing for University examination.
PASSING CRITERIA: Every student should have an aggregate score of minimum 50%Marks in theory and practical examination i.e. combining internal evaluation and university examination (It is not compulsory to pass in section – I and section – II separately).
GENERAL INSTRUCTIONS FOR UNIVERSITY PRACTICAL EXAMINATION(1) Practical examination should be taken and marks should be given by pair of examiners (one internal from Marwadi University and one external from another university) only and not by single examiner. For practical exam of Medical subjects, number of examiners is as per Marwadi University rules / Medical Council of India rules(2) Examiner shall not keep any kind of rough or fair copy of any mark sheet with him/her.(3) Number of students per examiner examined per day should not exceed 30.
REASSESSMENT /REVIEW OF ANSWER PAPERS OF CANDIDATESAs per the regulations prescribed for review of answer papers by the MU.
INTERNAL EVALUATION FOR REPEATERS: A candidate who has been declared fail in University examination for either of 1st,2nd,3rd
and 4th year B.P.T is a repeater for said examination/paper/subject. The eligibility criteria for appearing for University examination shall be applicable for
the repeaters. But, the candidate may appear for the theory and practical held during that Academic year i.e. preliminary exam (I.A), for the improvement of internal marks for the subsequent University examination in the paper/papers he/she has failed. If candidate does not wish to appear in repeat internal examination, marks obtained in previous internal examination will be counted as final marks.
PROMOTION CRITERIA / CARRY OVER SYSTEM:1. It is not mandatory to pass in 1st year B.P.T Examination to proceed to 2nd year
B.P.T.class. However, it is mandatory to pass in all subjects of 1st year B.P.T examination to be eligible to appear for 2nd year B.P.T examination.
2. It is not mandatory to pass in 2nd year B.P.T Examination to proceed to 3rd year B.P.T class. (Students can be allowed to attend classes in 3 rd B.P.T only if he/she has passed1st
B.P.T University exam.) However, it is mandatory to pass in all subjects of 2nd year B.P.T examination to be eligible to appear for 3rd year B.P.T examination
3. It is not mandatory to pass in 3nd year B.P.T Examination to proceed to 4rd year B.P.T class. (Students can be allowed to attend classes in 4 th B.P.T only if he/she has passed 2nd
B.P.T University exam.) However, it is mandatory to pass in all subjects of 3 rd year B.P.T examination to be eligible to appear for 4th year B.P.T examination
4. A candidate cannot be declared to have passed the examination until he/she has passed in all the subjects in that particular examination.
5. Student will not be allowed to appear in higher examination unless he/she has passed all subjects of lower examination.
6. Candidates must have 75% attendance of whole academic year to appear for Marwadi University exam. (Candidates must have completed one academic year after lower examination to appear in higher examination.)
7. If student/candidate cannot fulfill 75% attendance (separately in theory/practical and clinical postings) at the end of academic year then that student will be detain and can appear in the exam after one year.
GRACE MARKS:The Grace Marks may be awarded by the Marwadi University to a student, who has failed in any paper either theory or practical; but it is a subject to discretion of the Vice Chancellor.
DEFINITION OF TRIAL/ATTEMPTFirst trial/attempt is deemed to take place when the candidate is due to appear as per the regulation of University for the examination. Similarly 2nd, 3rd, etc, trials relating to subsequent examination. There is no limit of numbers of trails in any year to pass examination.
EXEMPTION FROM RE-EXAMINATION:Candidates who have failed in the examination, but obtained pass marks in any subjects shall be exempted from re-examination in those subjects. Candidates who have failed in theory &/orPractical in any subject, will have to appear in theory & practical both again for that particularSubject.COMPULSORY ROTATORY INTERNSHIP
All students of Bachelor of Physiotherapy must undergo a compulsory rotatory internship for a period of 6 months after passing 4th year BPT examination in all subjects. It includes Minimum 1164 hours. Candidate will have to join internship within 15 days of declaration of 4th year University examination result.
Internship should be done in only Hospitals/Institutions recognized by the GSCPT(Gujarat State Council for Physiotherapy). No candidate shall be awarded degree certificate without successfully completing six months of Internship.
The Internship should be rotatory and cover clinical branches concerned with Physiotherapy such as Orthopedics, Cardiothoracic including ICU, Neurology, Pediatrics, General Medicine, General Surgery, Obstetrics, Geriatrics, Women’s health, CBR and Gynecology both in- patient and out-patient services.
On completion of all postings, the duly completed logbooks will be submitted to the Principal/Head of program to be considered as having successfully completed the internship program.
DRESS CODE:Professionalism with respect to dressing is encouraged throughout the course. It is eachStudent’s responsibility to have appropriate dressing during all class assignments and learning activities. Students are supposed to wear apron compulsorily during practical and clinical hours.
MIGRATION/TRANSFER OF CANDIDATES:The Vice Chancellor shall have the powers to place any migration/transfer he/she is fit forgrant of permission for migration/transfer to candidates undergoing course of study in anotherUniversity as prescribed by University
COURSE OF STUDY – SUBJECTS & HOURS DISTRIBUTION1 credit = 1 classroom lecture per week for 20 weeks (1 term) (makes 20 lectures in one term) or 2 Practical/clinical hours per week for 20 weeks (1 term) (makes 40 practical hours in one term)
SYLLABUSFIRST YEAR B.P.T.*Not for university exam.Serial no.
Course name Theory Practical(Hr) Total Credits
1 Human Anatomy 140 160 300 112 Human physiology 140 160 300 113 Biochemistry 60 - 60 34 Psychology 70 - 70 75 Sociology 70 - 706 Exercise therapy- 1
& soft tissue mobilization
140 160 300 11
7 Biomedical Physics 80 40 120 58 Health care
delivery system + Professional Practice &Ethics*
40 - 40 2
9 English* 40 - 40 210 Computer* 40 - 40 211 Environment
Studies*40 - 40 2
12 Observational ClinicalPractice(4 Hrs/Week)
160 160 4
FACULTY OF PHYSIOTHERAPY,
MARWADI UNIVERSITYFIRST YEAR SYLLABUS
A. HUMAN ANATOMY ( THEORY HOURS=125)
1 GENERAL ANATOMY1.1 Introduction & anatomical terms1.2 Skin, Superficial Fascia & deep fascia1.3 CVS, Portal system, collateral circulation & arteries1.4 Lymphatic system1.5 Osteology1.6 Myology1.7 Syndesmology (joints) 1.8 Nervous system
2 HISTOLOGY2.1 Cell2.2 Epithelia2.3 Connective tissue general2.4 Cartilage2.5 Bone2.6 Muscles2.7 Nerves2.8 Blood and phagocytic system2.9 Lymph and lymphatic system
2.10 Blood vessels2.11 Skin and its appendages2.12 Central nervous system
3 GENERAL EMBRYOLOGY3.1 Spermatogenesis3.2 Structure of Spermatozoon3.3 Oogenesis3.4 Ovarian follicle3.5 Fertilization3.6 Formation of germ layers3.7 Placental development3.8 Brachial arches3.9 Development of skeletal system
3.10Development of all type muscular system
3.11Development of locomotor system3.12Development of nervous system
4 MYOLOGY, OSTEOLOGY & ARTHROLOGY4.1 Fascia & muscles of scalp and face4.2 Muscles of mastication4.3 Temporomandibular joint4.4 Muscles of orbit & related nerves4.5 Superficial and lateral cervical muscle4.6 platysma, trapezius, SCM4.7 Anterior triangle of neck-suprahyoid & infrahyoid4.8 Anterior and lateral vertebral muscles4.9 Cervical plexus
4.10 Cranial nerve (1st to 6th) (7th & 8th)4.11 Cranial nerve (9th , 10th , 11th , 12th)4.12 Sub occipital triangle &sub occipital muscles4.13 Joints of vertebral column to cranium4.14 Muscles of thorax and movement of respiration4.15 Joints of thorax including sternochondral & chondrocostal joints4.16 Muscles of abdomen4.17 Muscles of pelvis4.18 Muscles of perineum4.19 Vertebral joint4.20 Joints of pelvis (lumbosacral, sacrococcygeal, pubic symphysis)4.21 Deep muscles of back4.22 Muscles connecting upper limb to vertebral column with regional structures4.23 Scapular muscles including regional structures4.24 Muscles of arm4.25 Axilla and brachial plexus4.26 Joints of shoulder girdle4.27 Shoulder joint4.28 Anterior antebrachial muscles (front of forearm) with regional structure4.29 Posterior antebrachial muscles (back of forearm) with regional structures4.30 Elbow joint & cubital fossa4.31 Radioulnar joint (superior, middle and inferior)4.32 The retinacula, fascia and synovial sheath of wrist and hand4.33 Muscles of hand4.34 Radiocarpal / wrist joint4.35 Other joints of hand 4.36 Muscles connecting lower limb to vertebral column with regional structures4.37 Muscles of iliac region(psoas muscle) and lumbar plexus4.38 Anterior femoral muscles (front of thigh) including regional structures4.39 Medical femoral muscles (adductor compartment) including regional structures4.40Muscles of gluteal region including regional structures4.41Posterior femoral muscles (back of thigh)4.42 including regional structures4.43Hip joint
4.44Anterior crural muscles including regional structures4.45Lateral crural muscles including regional structures4.46Posterior crural muscles including regional structures4.47Knee joint4.48Popliteal fossa4.49Muscles of foot4.50 Tibiofibular joint (superior, middle and inferior)4.51Talocrural joint ( ankle joint)4.52Joints of foot & Arches)
5 NERVOUS SYSTEM5.1 Introduction to nervous system & meanings5.2 Spinal cord & peripheral nerves and vertebral canal5.3 Brain stem-15.4 Brain stem-25.5 Cerebellum5.6 Diencephalon with basal ganglia5.7 Limbic system with olfactory region5.8 Cerebrum & functional areas5.9 Spinal tracts & overview of CNS – I
5.10 Spinal tracts & overview of CNS – II
6 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM6.1 Thoracic cage & Air passages.6.2 Respiratory organs - lungs, pleura, bronchial tree, broncho-pulmonary segments. 6.3 Diaphragm: Origin, insertion, nerve supply and action, openings in the diaphragm. 6.4 Intercostal muscles and Accessory muscles of respiration: Origin, insertion, nerve supply and
action. 6.5 Mechanism of respiration.
7 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM (Heart & Vessels)7.1 Blood, lymph and tissue fluid- characteristic, composition, function. 7.2 The heart – position, shape and parts; main arteries, veins, capillaries.7.3 Lymph circulation.
8 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM8.1 Anatomy of digestive organs– Oesophagus, Stomach, Intestine, Rectum etc. 8.2 Digestive glands, Liver, Pancreas, Gall bladder.
9 URINARY SYSTEM9.1 Anatomy of urinary organs, kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra in males and females etc.9.2 Types of bladder especially in paraplegics.
10 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM10.1 Glands -classification, sites and secretion. 10.2 Hormones.
11 REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM11.1 Brief outline of genital organs.
11.2 Outline of male and female reproductive system.
12 SPECIAL SENSORY ORGANS & SENSATIONS12.1 Emphasis on skin, ear and eyes. 12.2 Less detail on smell and taste.
PRACTICAL ( PRACTICAL HOURS=175)
1 Dissection of upper and lower limbs & back.2 Identification of anterolateral abdominal wall, posterior abdominal wall & thoracic cage.3 Anatomical position & description of all bones.4 Surface marking in cadaver and living body.5 Radiological examination of upper limb, lower limb & other special X-rays.6 In BRAIN: Identification of all parts and various sections at different levels.7 In HISTOLOGY PRACTICAL: Identification of basic tissues of body.
RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Human Anatomy by B.D. Chaurasia, Vol.1, 2, 3 and general anatomy handbook Latest edition;
CBS publications. 2. Textbook of Anatomy by Inderbir Singh; Latest edition; Jaypee Publications. 3. Handbook of Osteology by Poddar; Latest edition; Scientific Book Company. 4. Principles of anatomy and physiology by Tortora; Latest edition; Harper& Row Publications. 5. Cunningham’s Manual of Practical Anatomy; Latest edition, Vol: 1, 2, 3; Oxford Publications. 6. Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students by Richard Snell, Latest edition, LippinCott, Williams &
Wilkins. 7. Anatomy & Physiology by Ross & Wilson’s, Latest edition, Churchill Livingston. 8. Gray’s Anatomy, Latest edition, Elsevier Publications. 9. Grant’s atlas of anatomy, Anne MR; Latest edition.
B. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
SR. NO TOPIC
1. GENERAL PHYSIOLOGY 1.1. Cell: Morphology. Organelles: their structure and functions.1.2. Transport Mechanisms across the cell membrane1.3. Body fluids: Distribution, composition
2. BLOOD2.1. Introduction: Composition and functions of blood.2.2. Plasma: Composition, formation, functions. Plasma proteins.2.3. RBC: count and its variations. Erythropoiesis-stages, factors regulating. Reticulo-endothelial
system (in brief). Haemoglobin–structure, function and derivatives Anemia (in detail), types of Jaundice. Blood indices, PCV,ESR.
2.4. WBC: Classification. Morphology, functions, count, its variation of each. Immunity.2.5. Platelets: Morphology, functions, count, its variations. Hemostatic mechanisms: Blood
coagulation–factors, mechanisms. Their disorders Anticoagulants.2.6. Blood Groups: Landsteiner’s law. Types, significance, determination, Erythroblastosis foetalis.2.7. Blood Transfusion: Cross matching. Indications and complications.2.8. Lymph: Composition, formation, circulation and functions.
3. CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM3.1 Introduction: Physiological anatomy and nerve supply of the heart and blood vessels. Organization
of CVS. Cardiac muscles: Structure, Ionic basis of action potential and pacemaker potential. Properties.
3.2 Conducting system: Components. Impulse conduction Cardiac Cycle: Definition. Phases of cardiac cycle. Pressure and volume curves. Heart sounds–causes, character. ECG: Definition, Different types of leads. Waves and their causes. P-R interval. Heart block.
3.3 Cardiac Output: Definition. Normal value. Determinants. Stroke volume and its regulation. Heart rate and its regulation. Their variations. Cardiovascular reflex.
3.4 Arterial Blood Pressure: Definition. Normal values and its variations. Determinants.3.5 Peripheral resistance. Regulation of BP.3.6 Hemorrhage and shock.3.7 Regional Circulation: Coronary, Cerebral and Cutaneous circulation.3.8 Cardio-vascular changes during exercise.
4. RESPIRATORY SYSTEM4.1 Introduction: Physiological anatomy–Pleura, tracheo-bronchial tree, alveolus, Respiratory
membrane and their nerve supply. Dead Space: Types and their definition. Functions of respiratory system. Respiratory muscles.
4.2 Mechanics of breathing: Intra-pleural and Intra-pulmonary pressure changes during respiration. Chest expansion. Lung compliance: Normal value, pressure-volume curve, factors affecting compliance and its variations. Surfactant–Composition, production, functions. RDS.
4.3 Spirometry: Lung volumes and capacities. Timed vital capacity and its clinical significance, PEFR, Maximum ventilation volume, Respiratory minute volume.
4.4 Pulmonary Circulation. Ventilation-perfusion ratio and its importance.4.5 Transport of respiratory gases: Diffusion across the respiratory membrane. Oxygen transport–
Different forms, oxygen –haemoglobin dissociation curve. Factors affecting it.4.6 Regulation of Respiration: Neural Regulation. Hering-breuer’s reflex. Voluntary control. Chemical
Regulation.4.7 Hypoxia: Effects of hypoxia. Types of hypoxia. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Acclimatization
Hype-rcapnoea, Asphyxia, Cyanosis–types and features.4.8 Disorders of Respiration: Dyspnoea, Orthopnoea. Hyperpnoea, hyperventilation, apnoea,
tachypnoea. periodic breathing–types Artificial respiration.4.9 Respiratory changes during exercise.
5 DIGESTIVE SYSTEM5.1 Introduction: Physiological anatomy and nerve supply of alimentary canal. Enteric nervous
system.5.2 Salivary Secretion: Saliva Composition. Functions. Regulation. Mastication (in brief).
Swallowing: Definition. Different stages. Function.5.3 Stomach: Functions. Gastric juice: Gland, composition, function, regulation. Gastrin: Production,
function and regulation. Peptic ulcer. Gastric motility. Gastric emptying. Vomiting. Pancreatic Secretion: Composition, production, function. Regulation.
5.4 Liver: Functions of liver. Bile secretion: Composition, functions and regulation. Gall bladder: Functions.
5.5 Intestine: Succus entericus: Composition, function and regulation of secretion. Intestinal motility and its function and regulation.
5.6 Mechanism of Defecation.
6 NUTRITION6.1 Digestion, absorption and metabolism of carbohydrates. 6.2 Digestion, absorption and metabolism of fats. 6.3 Digestion, absorption and metabolism of proteins.6.4 Vitamins, sources, functions and resources. 6.5 Balanced diet in different age groups and occupation.
7 ENDOCRINE SYSTEM7.1 Introduction: Hormone. Classification, mechanism of action, function of hormones.7.2 Pituitary Gland: Anterior Pituitary and Posterior Pituitary hormones: Secretory cells action on
target cells, regulation of each hormone. Disorders: gigantism, acromegaly, dwarfism, diabetes insipidus. Physiology of growth and development hormonal and other influences. Pituitary-hypothalamus relationship.
7.3 Thyroid Gland: Thyroid hormone and calcitonin: secretory cells, synthesis, storage action and regulation iof secretion. Disorders- myxedema, cretinism, grave’s disease.
7.4 Parathyroid hormones: secretory cell, regulation of secretion. Disorders- hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
7.5 Adrenal Medulla: Secretory cells, action, regulation of secretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline.7.6 Adrenal Gland: Adrenal Cortex: Secretory cells, synthesis, action, regulation of secretion of
aldosterone, cortisol and androgens.7.7 Endocrine Pancreas: Secretory cells, action, regulation of secretion of insulin and glucagon.
Glucose metabolism and its regulation. Disorders- diabetes mellitus.7.8 Calcitrol, thymus and pineal gland (in brief)
8 REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM8.1 Introduction: Physiological anatomy reproductive organs. Sex determination. Sex differentiation.
Disorder.8.2 Male Reproductive System: Functions of testes. Pubertal changes in males. Spermatogenesis.
Testosterone: action. Regulation of secretion. Semen.8.3 Female Reproductive System: Functions of ovaries and uterus. Pubertal changes in females.
Oogenesis. Hormones: estrogen and progesterone-action.8.4 Menstrual Cycle: Phases. Ovarian cycle. Uterine cycle. Hormonal basis. Menarche. Menopause.8.5 Pregnancy: Pregnancy tests. Physiological changes during pregnancy. Functions of placenta.
Lactation. Contraception method.
9 EXCRETORY SYSTEM9.1 Introduction: Physiological anatomy. Nephrons–cortical and juxtamedullary. Juxtaglomerular
apparatus. Renal blood flow and its regulation. Functions of kidneys.9.2 Mechanism of Urine Formation: Glomerular Filtration: Mechanism of glomerular filtration. GFR–
normal value and factors affecting. Renal clearance. Creatinine clearance.9.3 Mechanism of concentrating and diluting the Urine: Counter-current mechanism. Regulation of
water excretion. Diuresis. Diuretics.9.4 Micturition: Mechanism of micturition. Atonic bladder, automatic bladder.9.5 Acid-Base balance (very brief).9.6 Artificial Kidney: Principle of hemodialysis.9.7 Skin and temperature regulation
10 NEUROMUSCULAR PHYSIOLOGY10.1 Structure of neuron, membrane potential and generation of action potential, nerve impulse
conduction, saltatory conduction.10.2 Neuromuscular junction and drugs affecting on it, myasthenia gravis, lambert eaton
syndrome.10.3 Degeneration and regeneration.10.4 Types of muscles and their gross structures.10.5 Strength duration curve, stimulus and chronaxie rheobase.10.6 Structure of sarcomere- basis of muscle contraction, starlings law, changes during muscle
contraction.10.7 Electrical- biphasic and mono-phasic action potential.10.8 Isometric and isotonic contractions. Chemical, thermal and physical changes.10.9 Motor unit and its properties.10.10 Nature of voluntary contraction. Fatigue.
11 NERVOUS SYSTEM11.1 Introduction: Organization of CNS–central and peripheral nervous system. Functions of
nervous system.11.2 Synapse: Functional anatomy, classification, Synaptic transmission.11.3 Sensory Mechanism: Sensory receptors: function, classification and properties. Sensory
pathway: The ascending tracts–Posterior column tracts, lateral spino-thalamic tract and the anterior spino-thalamic tract–their origin, course, termination and functions. The trigeminal pathway.Sensory cortex.Somatic sensations: crude touch, fine touch, tactile localization, tactile discrimination, stereognosis, vibration sense, kinesthetic sensations.Pain sensation: mechanism of pain. Cutaneous pain–slow and fast pain, hyperalgesia, deep pain, Visceral pain, referred pain. Gate control theory of pain. Tabes dorsalis, sensoryataxia.
11.4 Motor Mechanism: Motor Cortex. Motor pathway: The descending tracts– pyramidal tracts, extrapyramidal tracts–origin, course, termination and functions. Upper motor neuron and lower motor neuron.
11.5 Reflex Action: Monosynaptic and polysynaptic reflexes, superficial reflexes, deep reflexes. Stretch reflex–structure of muscle spindle, pathway, higher control and functions. Inverse stretch reflex. Muscle tone–definition, and properties hypotonia, atonia and hypertonia. UMNL and LMNL.
11.6 Spinal cord Lesions: Complete transaction and Hemisection of the spinalcord.11.7 Cerebellum: Functions. Cerebellar ataxia.11.8 Posture and Equilibrium: Postural reflexes–spinal, medullary, midbrain and cerebral
reflexes.11.9 Thalamus and Hypothalamus: Nuclei, functions. Thalamic syndrome.11.10 Reticular Formation and Limbic System: Components and Functions. Basal Ganglia:
Structures included and functions. Parkinson’s disease.
12 SPECIAL SENSES12.1 Vision: Introduction: Functional anatomy of eyeball. Functions of cornea, iris, Pupil,
aqueous humor–glaucoma, lens–cataract, vitreous humor, rods and cones. Photopic vision. Scotopic vision.
12.2 Visual Pathway and the effects of lesions.12.3 Refractive Errors: myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia and astigmatism.12.4 Visual Reflexes: Accommodation, Pupillary and Light. Visual acuity and Visual field.12.5 Light adaptation. Dark adaptation. Color vision–color blindness. Nyctalopia.12.6 Audition: Physiological anatomy of the ear. Functions of external ear, middle ear and inner
ear. Structure of Cochlea and organ of corti. Auditory pathway. Types of Deafness. Tests for hearing. Audiometry.
12.7 Taste: Taste buds. Primary tastes. Gustatory pathway.12.8 Smell: Olfactory membrane. Olfactory pathway.12.9 Vestibular Apparatus: Crista ampullaris and macula. Functions. Disorders.
1 Nerve Muscle physiologyGastroc-nemius Muscle-Sciatic Nerve Prep. Action Potential etc.Effect of Temperature on S.M.C Effect of Load on Skeletal Muscle Contraction
2 Cardio-Vascular System ECGBPRadial Pulse Spirometry/Respiratory Efficiency TestExamination of CVS and Respiratory system
3 Instruments Recording Body Temperature
4 HaematologyTotal red Cell Count Total White Blood Count Cells in Peripheral blood film Differential WBC count Absolute count,Arneth count Blood grouping
Bleeding time/Clotting Time, Blood , PCV, ESR
5 Central Nervous System Examination of sensory function Examination of motor functions Examination of reflexes Cranial nerves I, III, IV, V, VI Cranial nerve II Cranial nerves VII, VIII, IX, X, XII
RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS:1. Concise Medical Physiology by Chaudhari, 4thEdition: New Central Book Agency.2. Textbook of Medical Physiology by Guyton &Hall, 11thedition; Elseveir Publication.3. Human Physiology, Chatterjee. Vol: 1&2: 10thEdition: Medical &AlliedAgency.4. Human Physiology, Sembulingam: 4th Edition, Jaypee Brothers.5. Practical Physiology by Vijaya Joshi: Vora Medical Publication. 6. A Textbook of Practical Physiology, Ghai C L, Jaypee Brothers. 7.Medical physiology for undergraduate student : Indu khurana Elseveir Publication
C. BIOCHEMISTRY (HOURS=40)
1. BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING MATER.1.1 Biochemistry, morphology of cell1.2 Membrane structure and function1.3 Functions of intracellular organs
2. NUCLEIC ACIDS.2.1 DNA, RNA – definition, structure, catabolism of purines –gout.
3. PROTEINS & AMINO ACIDS3.1 Chemistry, definition, classification of amino – acids, protein.3.2 Metabolism, digestion and absorption, decarboxylation, deamination, transmethylation, transamination
and their importance and detoxification of ammonia including urea cycle. 3.3 Neurotransmitters & Plasma proteins including immunoglobulins3.4 Hemoglobin, Myoglobin, their functions, haemoglobinopathies, thalassemias. 3.5 Structural proteins: Collagen, Elastin.
4. ENZYMES.4.1 Definitions, classification, factors. 4.2 Coenzymes.4.3 Inhibition and type of inhibitors4.4 Isoenzymes.4.5 Clinical and therapeutic uses of enzymes.
5. CARBOHYDRATES5.1 Chemistry, definition, classification with examples5.2 Function of mucopolysaccharide5.3 Reducing properties of sugars of clinical and diagnostic importance (eg: Benedict’s test,Barfoed’s test,
etc)5.4 Metabolism, digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, glycosis – aerobic and anaerobic, energetics
and regulation. 5.5 Krebs’s cycle, its energetics regulation Gluconeogenesis5.6 Hormonal regulation of blood sugar level and diabetes mellitus.
6. LIPIDS6.1 Chemistry, definition, classification and function.6.2 Metabolism, digestion and absorption of lipids,beta oxidation of fatty acids and its energetics,
regulation of fat metabolism in adipose tissue, ketone bodies formation and its utilization, cholesterol and importance of lipoproteins.
7. VITAMINS7.1 Definition, classification, functions. 7.2 Deficiency symptoms, RDA.
8. HORMONES.9. METABOLISM.
9.1 Introduction of metabolism.9.2 Metabolism of carbohydrates, Lipid & aminocids.
10. NUTRITION10.1 Importance of nutrition, nutritional aspects of Carbohydrates. 10.2 Proteins, Fats and Fibers, Classification of fibers, calorimetry, energy values, respiratory quotient. 10.3 BMR, PEM, Balanced diet.
11. Biochemistry of connective tissues, nerve tissue and muscle.12. Water, electrolyte and acid base balance And Minerals.
12.1 Phosphate, calcium and iron. Magnesium fluoride, Zinc, Copper, Selenium, Molybdenum RDA, iodine sources, absorption, transport, excretion, function and disorders.
12.2 Acid – base balance, water and electrolyte balance..13. Chemistry of biology materials. Biochemistry of connective tissue – Collagen, Glycoprotein, Proteo-
glycans14. Physicochemical Phenomenon.15. Common procedures used in biochemistry.
15.1 Liver function test. 15.2 Renal function test.
RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS: 1.Essentials of Bio-chemistry by U. Satyanarayan, Latest Edition, Books and Allied Publications. 2 Medical Biochemistry for Physiotherapy students by Harpreet Kaur, Jagmohan Singh,Latest edition, Jaypee Publications. 3.Text book of Medical Bio-Chemistry– Dr. M.N.Chettergee, Latest Edition, Jaypee Publication. 4. Fundamental of Bio-Chemistry– Dr A.C.Deb Latest Edition, Central Publication.5. Bio-chemistry introduction– Mekee, Latest Edition, MacGraw Hill Publication.6.Textbook of Biochemistry for medical students : DM Vasudevan: Jaypee Publication.
D. PSYCHOLOGY (HOURS=70)
SR. NO. TOPICS1. THE ART & SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY
1.1 Beginning the study of psychology& Subfields of psychology.1.2 Methods of psychology.
2. EVOLUTION, GENETICS & BEHAVIOR2.1 Genetics & Behavior.2.2 Nature& Nurture.
3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR3.1 Early Development.3.2 Cognitive Development.3.3 Social Development.
4. THE PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING4.1 Beginning the study of Learning4.2 Classical Conditioning4.3 Operant Conditioning4.4 Cognitive Learning
5. THINKING & PROBLEM SOLVING5.1 The Thinking Process.5.2 Solving Problems.5.3 How We Learn Concepts.
6. DRIVES & MOTIVATION6.1 The Nature of Motivation.6.2 Primary Motives.6.3 Social Motives6.4 Need6.5 Hierarchy theory of Maslow.
7. AROUSAL, EMOTION & AWARENESS7.1 Physiological basis of arousal & emotion.7.2 Emotional feelings & Situations.7.3 Altered Feelings & Awareness
8. THE SENSES8.1 Sensory Mechanisms.8.2 Vision.8.3 Hearing.
9. PERCEPTION9.1 Objective Perception.9.2 Perceptual Constancies.9.3 Depth Perception 9.4 Influences on Perception.
10. PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING10.1 Uses of Tests.10.2 Intelligence & Aptitude Tests.
10.3 Differences in Intelligence.10.4 Personality tests.
11. PERSONALITY11.1 What is Personality?11.2 Theories of Personality.11.3 The Shaping of Personality.11.4 Coping Behavior.
12. Memory: Phases of memory.12.1 Short term storage, memory and perception thinking etc.12.2 Forgetting testimony and recall of events.12.3 Memory and ageing
13. BEHAVIOR DISORDERS & THEIR TREATMENT13.1 Defining the Behavior Disorders.13.2 Psychoneurotic Reactions.13.3 Psychotic Reactions.13.4 Personality Disorders.13.5 Psychotherapies.13.6 Behavior Modification
14. ATTITUDES & PREJUDICE14.1 The Nature of Attitudes.14.2 Prejudice & Discrimination.14.3 Development of Attitudes.14.4 Social Movements.
15. INTERPERSONAL BEHAVIOUR15.1 Experimental analysis on social interaction, studies of the interview situation 15.2 Behaviour in formal and informal groups15.3 Group norms and roles. 15.4 Leadership in formal and informal groups, group moral.15.5 Behaviour therapy, behaviour modification techniques, token economy.
16. STRESS16.1 Stress and response.16.2 Disorders.16.3 Coping with stressors. 16.4 Four maxims.16.5 Meditational yoga
17. PAIN 17.1 Physiological and psychological pain17.2 Types of pain17.3 Pain measurement
18. PSYCHOTHERAPY AND COUNSELING18.1 Goals, Psychodynamic therapy.18.2 Humanistic therapy.18.3 Behavior therapy- Relaxation training (Jacobson training), Hypnosis, Biofeedback.18.4 Behavior modification therapies (BMT)18.5 Cognitive therapy- Elli’s rational/ emotive therapy, Beck’s cognitive, Meichenbaum’s self-
RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS:1. Introduction to psychology by S.K.Mangal, Sterling Publishers 2. Introduction to psychology by–Morgan and King, 7th Edition, Tata McGraw-HillEdition. 3. Psychology: The Study of Human Behaviour,Mishra B.K,PHI Learning. 4. Essentials of Educational Psychology,Skinner Charles E,Surjeet Publication. 5. Abnormal Psychology,Page James D, Surjeet Publication.
1. INTRODUCTION1.1 Meaning–definition and scope of sociology. Its relation with anthropology, psychology, social
psychology and ethics.1.2 Methods of sociology–case study, social serve, questionary interview and opinion Methods.1.3 Importance of its study with special reference to health care professionals.
2. SOCIAL FACTORS IN HEALTH & DISEASE2.1 The meaning and nature of socialization.2.2 The role of social factors in health and illness.
3. SOCIALIZATION3.1 Meaning and nature of socialization.3.2 Primary, secondary and anticipatory socialization. 3.3 Agencies of socialization.
4. SOCIAL GROUPS4.1 Concepts of social groups.4.2 Influence of formal and informal groups on health and sickness.4.3 Role of primary groups and secondary groups in the hospital and rehabilitation settings.
5. FAMILY5.1 The family-Meaning, Definition & Function.5.2 Types & Changing family patterns.5.3 Influence of family on individual health, family and nutrition, the effect of sickness on family
and psychosomatic diseases and their importance to physiotherapy.6. COMMUNITY
6.1 Rural community–meaning and features–health hazards of rural ties.6.2 Urban community–meaning and features–health hazards of urbanities
7. CULTURE AND HEALTH7.1 Concept of culture.7.2 Culture and behavior.7.3 Cultural meaning of sickness.7.4 Culture and Health Disorders.
8. SOCIAL CHANGE8.1 Meaning of social changes.8.2 Factors of social changes.8.3 Human adaptation and social change.8.4 Social change and stress.8.5 Social change and deviance.8.6 Social change and health program.8.7 The role of social planning in the improvement of rehabilitation.
9. SOCIAL PROBLEMS OF DISABLED
9.1 Consequences of the following social problems in relation to sickness and disability, remedies to prevent this problem.
9.2 Population explosion.9.3 Poverty and unemployment.9.4 Beggary.9.5 Juvenile delinquency.9.6 Prostitution.9.7 Alcoholism.9.8 Problems of women in employment
10. SOCIAL SECURITY10.1 Social security and social legislation in relation to disabled.
11. SOCIAL WORKER11.1 Meaning of social work, role of a medical social worker
RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS:1. An introduction to sociology by-Sachdeva and Bhushan, 32nd Edition, Kitab Mahal Publication. 2. Textbook of Sociology for Physiotherapy Students by KP Neeraja, 1st Edition, Jaypee Publication. 3. Indrani T K, Text Books of Sociology for Graduates Nurses and Physiotherapy Students, JP Brothers.4. Sociology for Physiotherapists by Dibyendunarayana Bid, 1st edition, Jaypee Publication.
F. EXERCISE THERAPY-I & SOFT TISSUE MANIPULATION ( HOURS=300)1. EXERCISE THERAPY-I
SR. NO. TOPICS
1 Introduction to exercise therapy.2 Physiological effects and uses of exercise.3 Use of apparatus in exercise therapy.4 Joint movement - terminology and range axes and planes of movement, levers.
5Fundamental starting positions, derived positions-effects and uses, pelvis tilt & Muscle work for all positions.
6Classification of movementstypes of muscle work
7 Active movements - Definition, types, techniques, effects and uses..
8Free Exercises - Classification, technique, effects of free exercises - application for shoulder, neck, hip and knee joints, techniques of mobilization for stiff joints
9Passive movements - Definition, types, techniques of relaxed passive movements and uses, comparison of both movements.
10Application of resistance to develop endurance and power, progression of exercises, angle of pull, types of muscle work, exercises - free resisted, assisted - use of gadget apparatus.
11Resisted Exercises - Techniques and types of resistance, SET system (Heavy resisted exercises) Oxford method, Delorme method, Macqueen's method.
12Measurement of joint movements, goniometry, types of goniometer, bubble and gravity goniometer.
13Causes of restriction of range of movement - Distinguish between skin, muscles, Capsular contractures.Capsular pattern, End feel.
14Suspension therapy - definitions of suspension and point of suspension, types of suspension, pulleys and use of pulleys in suspension therapy, application of suspension therapy either to increase the joint range or to increase muscle power.
15Breathing - Mechanism of breathing (normal), Muscles of respiration, changes in thoracic cage during process of respiration Pursed lip breathing & Glossopharyngeal Breathing - significance.
Group work-Criteria of selection of patients, advantages and disadvantages of group class exercises.Home exercises - trick movements.
17 Normal gait cycle – Phases of gait18 Crutch walking - Types of crutch walking, Use of parallel bars in pre-crutch walking
stage, balance exercises, phase of walking, gait training, group of muscles responsible during crutch walking.Progression in crutch walking, measurement of crutches, other walking aids canes, walkers, tripods other types of crutches, crutch - walking on even surface, slopes,climbing up the stair case.
19 Measurement of limb length, methods of measurements.20 Maintenance of record-volume, range of motion, resistance, limb length. Girth measurement.
2. SOFT TISSUE MANIPULATION
21 Introduction-brief history, definition, classification.22 Physiological effects and therapeutic uses, contra - indications.
23Preparation of patient, basic points to be considered before and during massageprocedure.
24Technique, effects and uses of each manipulation and contra-indications.Practice of soft tissue manipulation in subjects.
25 Specific effects of certain manipulations.26 Massage for arm, leg, neck and upper back face.27 Massage for oedema, scar, tendinitis, fibrosis (tight fascia)28 Mobilization of soft tissues, joints and fluid collection.
RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. Principles of Exercise Therapy by Dena Gardiner, 4th Edition, CBS Publication. 2. Therapeutic Exercise by Kisner& Colby, 4th Edition; Jaypee Publication. 3. Principles and Practices of Therapeutic Massage, Sinha A G, Jaypee Publication4. Handbook of Clinical Massage latest edition Casser M P, Elsevier Publication. 5 .Measurement of Joint Motion – a guide to Goniometry by Cynthia Norkins, Latest Edition; Jaypee Publication. 6 .Practical Exercise Therapy by Margaret Hollis, 4th Edition; Blackwell Sciences Publication.
G. BIOMEDICAL PHYSICS (HOURS=150)
1. GENERAL MECHANICS AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER1.1 Force – Definition, unit, resolution of forces, Newton’s laws of motion. Types of motion, direction
and quantity of motion, Speed, Velocity, Work, Energy and Power.21.2 Force of gravity, centre of gravity, line of gravity and base. Axes and planes of movement and
gravity21.3 Reaction forces, ground reaction force, Equilibrium, determination of equilibrium of a body,
Inertia, Acceleration, Momentum and Torque.21.4 Friction – force of friction, static and dynamic friction, limit of friction, friction a necessity and
evil.11.5 Simple machine – Lever, mechanical advantage, angle of pull, pulley, wheel and axle, fixed and
movable pulley, pendulums, elasticity, spring properties of spring.31.6 Fluid mechanics – Viscosity, definition, coefficient of viscosity, streamline and turbulent flow,
effect of temperature and pressure on viscosity.Principle of Archimedes, laws of floatation, hydrostatic pressure, buoyancy, surface tension, excess pressure in spherical liquefied drop. Physical property of water.3
2. HEAT AND TEMPERATUREHeat: 2.1 Heat transfer, properties of thermal radiation, Specific heat, thermal capacity, Energy conversion, I
and II law of thermodynamics, physical effects of heat – expansion, evaporation, thermionic emission etc.
2.2 Concept of heat and temperature, measurement of heat thermometry, thermometer. Method of measuring body temperature. Human body temperature
2.3 Biophysics of superficial heat and cold. Kirchoff’s law, Grothus’ law, Specific heat, thermal capacity, water equivalent, Newton’s law of cooling and specific heat by cooling specific heat of gases, Joule’s law of heat production. Enthalpy, entropy.
3. WAVES AND SOUND3.1 Sound: Origin of sound, Characteristics of sound waves (Intensity of Sound, loudness, pitch and
frequency, noise, echo, Superposition of Sound Waves, Producing Sound), velocity of sound in air and water, effect of temperature, pressure, density of medium, humidity, wind on sound waves.2
3.2 Simple Harmonic Motion Revisited: Damping and Resonance, Wave Concepts, Traveling Waves, Waves at a Boundary: Interference, Standing Waves and Resonance, Determination of velocity of sound in air, vibration of string.2
3.3 The Human Ear: Physiology and Function, The Doppler Effect in Sound, Ultrasound, Ultrasonic – production and its application, Piezoelectricity.2
3.4 Frequencies of sound waves, Infrasonic, Normal hearing band and Ultrasonics, Reflection, Refraction and Attenuation of Sound waves, Acoustic Impedance, Interference of sound waves, Resonance, Echo, Doppler effect and Fresnel and Fraunhofer zones in Ultrasonics.2
4. MODERN OPTICS4.1 Electromagnetic Spectrum: Electromagnetic Radiation: Laws Governing EMR, Laws of
Reflection, Refraction, Absorption, Cosine law, Attenuation, Inverse square law. Grothus law etc.4.2 Light: Emission and absorption spectra. Electromagnetic spectrum. Laws of transmission,
reflection, refraction, absorption. Internal reflection and fibre optics, Interference of light. LASER and its application.
5. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM5.1 Structure of atom, Isotopes, States of matter; Compound formation-(covalent formation).5.2 Static Electricity: Theories of Electricity, Production of Electric Charge, Characteristic of Charged
body, Potential and Capacity, Potential Difference.5.3 Current Electricity: Energy sources for electricity, EMF, Resistance, Intensity, Ohm’s Law,
resistance in Series / Parallel, Devices for regulating Intensity (Types, Construction and working of Rheostat), Electric energy and power, Thermal Effects of Electric (Joule ’s Law).
5.4 Magnetism: Nature, Type, Molecular Theory of Magnetism, Property of Magnet, Magnetic Effect of Electric Current, Electromagnets, Milliamperemeter& Voltmeter (Construction and working), Meters for measuring Ac.
5.5 Capacitor / Condenser: Principles, Capacity (Measurement and factors determining), Types and Construction, Electric field, lines of force and characteristics of lines of force, Charging and discharging of the condenser, Duration of discharge, discharge through inductance, capacitive reactance and uses of condenser.
5.6 Electro Magnetic Induction: Principles (Faraday’s/Lenz’s law), Production, Direction of Induced EMF, Strength of induced EMF, Types (Self and Mutual) and inductive reactance. Eddy Currents, Dynamo, Transformers (Functions, Types, Constrictions), Choke coil.
5.7 Thermionic Valves (Diode and Triodes), Types of rectification (Half and full wave – Voltage halving and Westinghouse Bridge), Semi Conductors: Types, semiconductor diodes, Metal rectifier & Transistors, Integrated circuits (IC), Picture Circuitry boards (PCB),
5.8 Main Supply: Production of Electricity, Types, Distribution, Earthing, Types of Plugs & Switches. Fuse.
5.9 Electric and electronic circuits: Oscillating circuit, Smoothing Circuit, surging circuit, CR circuit, multivibrator circuit, faradic coils (lewis jones and smart bristow), panel diagram of electrical stimulator, Production of high frequency current by klystron, magnetron.
5.10 Frequencies of Current – Low, Medium and High frequency currents and their characteristics, Biological Cell as a capacitor and resistor, frequency of current7 and its relation to capacitive reactance (resistance)
5.11 Types of current – DC and AC, Sources of DC,Necessity for rectification of AC, Use of DC as a therapeutic current and its dangers, Electrical Skin Resistance, Electrolysis, acidic and alkaline reactions under anode and cathode, Electrolytic burns and its prevention
5.12 Shock: Types (Electric Shock, Earth Shock), Definition, Severity, Effects, Causes and Precautions.
RECOMMENDED REFERENCE BOOKS:
1. Physics-Foundation & frontiers by George Cramow & John M. Cleveland2. Fundamentals of Biomedical Physics by Akil Saiyed & Babita Saiyed3. Physics of the life sciences by Jay Newman. 2008. 4. University physics for the physical and life sciences by Philip R. Kesten and David L. Tauck. First Edition, W. H. Freeman and Company. 2012. 5. Physics for the biological sciences by Fredrick Ross Halett, Harcourt Canada. 2001. 4. Text book of Sound–Brijlal and Subramanian6. Fundamental of Electrotherapy and Biomedical Physics, Ashish Kakkad; Jaypee Brothers.7. Clayton’s electrotherapy- Theory and Practice, Forster and Palastanga; 8th edition.
H. PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE & ETHICS (HOURS=20)
(Not for University Exam)
SR.NO. TOPIC1. Introduction to the history of physiotherapy.2. Orientation to the curriculum, clinical areas and geographical location 3. Concept of morality & ethics. 4. Concept of professionalism and professional dress code.
I. INTRODUCTION TO NATIONAL HEALTHCARE DELIVERY SYSTEM IN INDIA (HOURS=20)
1. Introduction to healthcare delivery system 1.1 Healthcare delivery system in India at primary, secondary and tertiary care 1.2 Community participation in healthcare delivery system 1.3 Health system in developed countries. 1.4 Private Sector 1.5 National Health Mission 1.6 National Health Policy 1.7 Issues in Health Care Delivery System in India
2. National Health Programme -Background objectives, action plan, targets, operations, achievements and constraints in various National Heath Programme
3. Introduction to AYUSH system of medicine 3.1 Introduction to Ayurveda. 3.2 Yoga and Naturopathy 3.3 Unani 3.4 Siddha 3.5 Homeopathy 3.6 Need for integration of various system of medicine
4. Health scenario of India- past, present and future5. Demography & Vital Statistics-
5.1 Demography – its concept 5.2 Vital events of life & its impact on demography 5.3 Significance and recording of vital statistics 5.4 Census & its impact on health policy
6. Epidemiology 6.1 Principles of Epidemiology 6.2 Natural History of disease 6.3 Methods of Epidemiological studies 6.4 Epidemiology of communicable & non-communicable diseases, disease transmission, host
defense immunizing agents, cold chain, immunization, disease monitoring and surveillance.
J. COMPUTER APPLICATIONS (HOURS=40)
(Not for University Exam)
SR.NO. TOPIC1. Introduction to data processing:
1.1 Features of computers. What are Hardware and Software? 1.2 Advantages of using computers. Role and uses of computers. What is data processing?1.3 Application areas of computers and common activities in data processing.Types of data
processing, characteristics of application.
2. Hardware concepts: 2.1 Architecture of computers – characteristics of discs, tapes, terminals, printers, network. 2.2 Types of storage devices. 2.3 Concept of damage. Application of networking concept of PC system care, floppy care, data
care etc. 3. Concept of software
3.1 Classification of software: System software.3.2 Application of software, Operating System, Computer System, computer virus, precautions
against viruses, dealing with viruses, computers in medical electronics.
4. Basic anatomy of Computers:4.1 Principles of programming: Computer application – principles in scientific research, work
processing, medicine, libraries, museum, education, information system. 4.2 Data processing 4.3 Computers in Physical Therapy – Principles of EMG, Exercise testing equipment, Laser.
K. ENGLISH (HOURS=50)
(Not for University Exam)
SR.NO. TOPIC1. Introduction:
1.1 Study techniques1.2 Organization of effective note taking and logical processes of analysis and synthesis. 1.3 Use of the dictionary 1.4 Enlargement of vocabulary 1.5 Effective diction
2. Applied Grammar: 2.1 Correct usage 2.2 The structure of sentences2.3 The structure of paragraphs 2.4 Enlargement of vocabulary
3. Written composition:3.1 Precise writing and summarizing 3.2 Writing of Bibliography 3.3 Enlargement of vocabulary
4. Reading and Comprehension: Review of selected materials and express oneself in one’s words and enlargement of vocabulary.
5. The study of various forms of composition: Paragraph, essay, letter, summary, practice in writing.6. Verbal Communication: Discussions and summarization, debates, oral reports, use in teaching.
L. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES (HOURS=50)
(Not for University Exam, Only for Internal Exam)
1. Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies 1.1 Definition, scope and importance 1.2 Need for public awareness.
2. Natural Resources: Renewable and non-renewable resources: Natural resources and associated problems. 2.1 Forest resources: Use and over-exploitation, deforestation, case studies. Timber extraction, mining,
dams and their effects on forest and tribal people. 2.2 Water resources: Use and over-utilization of surface and ground water, Floods, drought, conflicts over
water, dams-benefits and problems.2.3 Mineral resources: Use and exploitation, environmental effects of extracting and using mineral
resources, case studies. 2.4 Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of
modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water Logging, salinity, case studies. 2.5 Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non-renewable energy sources, use of
alternate energy sources. Case studies.
2.6 Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, man induced Landslides, soil erosion and desertification.
2.7 Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources. 2.8 Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.
3. Ecosystems 3.1 Concept of an ecosystem. 3.2 Structure and function of an ecosystem. 3.3 Producers, consumers and decomposers. 3.4 Energy flow in the ecosystem. 3.5 Ecological succession. 3.6 Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids. 3.7 Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the following ecosystem: • Forest
ecosystem • Grassland ecosystem • Desert ecosystem • Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries
4. Biodiversity and its conservation 4.1 Introduction – Definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity. 4.2 Bio-geographical classification of India 4.3 Value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values 4.4 Biodiversity at global, National and local levels. 4.5 Inida as a mega-diversity nation 4.6 Hot-sports of biodiversity. 4.7 Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts. 4.8 Endangered and endemic species of India 4.9 Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
5. Environmental Pollution 5.1 Definition, Cause, effects and control measures of: Air pollution, Water pollution, Soil pollution,
Marine pollution, Noise pollution, Thermal pollution, nuclear hazards 5.2 Solid waste Management: Causes, effects and control measures of urban and Industrial wastes.5.3 Role of an individual in prevention of pollution. 5.4 Pollution case studies. 5.5 Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides.
6. Social Issues and the Environment 6.1 From Unsustainable to Sustainable development 6.2 Urban problems related to energy 6.3 Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management 6.4 Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns. 6.5 Case Studies 6.6 Environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions. 6.7 Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear 6.8 Accidents and holocaust. Case Studies. 6.9 Wasteland reclamation. 6.10 Consumerism and waste products. 6.11 Environment Protection Act. l) Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act. m) Water
(Prevention and control of Pollution) Act n) Wildlife Protection Act o) Forest Conservation Act p) Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation. q) Public awareness.
7. Human Population and the Environment 7.1 Population growth, variation among nations. 7.2 Population explosion – Family Welfare Programme. 7.3 Environment and human health. 7.4 Human Rights. 7.5 Value Education.7.6 HIV/AIDS.7.7 Women and Child Welfare. 7.8 Role of Information Technology in Environment and human health. 7.9 Case Studies.
8. Field work 8.1 Visit to a local area to document environmental assetsriver/ forest/grassland/hill/mountain.8.2 Visit to a local polluted site-Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural.8.3 Study of common plants, insects, birds. 8.4 Study of simple ecosystems-pond, river, hill slopes, etc.
NOTE: This hour’s distribution is tentative and is subjected to change according to the importance of the topic and the subject expert.