wcc film 100-cinematography

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Film 100: Introduction to Film Film terminology: ability to understand and apply basic film terms Basic elements of film: the building blocks of cinema Production process: basics of how films are made Basic critical analysis: how meaning is constructed in film, ideology, cultural and historical influences Writing about film: develop thesis and support it with examples from the film in question

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Film 100: Introduction to FilmFilm terminology: ability to understand and apply basic film terms Basic elements of film: the building blocks of cinemaProduction process: basics of how films are madeBasic critical analysis: how meaning is constructed in film, ideology, cultural and historical influencesWriting about film: develop thesis and support it with examples from the film in question

Elements of FilmNarrative: How story is constructedCinematography: Process by which moving images are recorded on film or videoMise en scne: All that is included in the frameEditing: How the various shots (and the sounds) in a film are put togetherSound: AudioWriting About Film: Pulling it all togetherAccurately describe what you see onscreen using proper terminologyCritically analyze scenes and explain how various film elements are used to create meaning

CHAPTER 2: CINEMATOGRAPHYWHAT IS CINEMATOGRAPHY?CINEMA = FILMOGRAPHY = a system of rules or laws, or body of knowledge of a particular subject. The process by which moving images are recorded on film including:Camerawork (movement, angles, etc.)LensesFilm StockLightingFiltersIn-Camera Special Effects (NOT CGI)

CHAPTER 2: CINEMATOGRAPHYToday were going to look at how various areas of cinematography work together to convey visual film narrative, both structurally and psychologically. Were going to do this by looking at how shots and scenes are made up of specific decisions about camera DISTANCE, ANGLES, and MOVEMENT.

THE FRAMEThe first motion pictures evolved out of the serial photography of Eadweard Mubridge in 1872 over a bet:

THE FRAMEThis is how motion picture cameras came into being; inventors took that concept and turned it into moviesTo record film: the film advances through a motion picture camera housing, pausing briefly before the aperture where that section is exposed to light through the camera lens EACH EXPOSURE CONSTITUES A FRAME

THE FRAMEThis is how motion picture cameras came into being; inventors took that concept and turned into moviesTo play back film: the process is basically reversed, with light shining out from WITHIN the projector, creating the frame rateMost films are recorded and projected at 24-frames per second. As a result, modern feature films may contain over 170,000 frames. Films are moving toward 48-frames per secondTHE HISTORY OF FRAME RATE FOR FILM

THE FRAMEThe term FRAME also refers to the rectangular boundary of the cinematic image as it appears on screen in a particular ASPECT RATIOA frames boundaries separate ON-SCREEN SPACE (what we see) from OFF-SCREEN SPACE (what we dont see); deciding what is in the frame and what isnt (often called framing) is at the heart of filmmaking

THE FRAMEOn the Waterfront - Aspect Ratio Visual Essay

THE SHOTWhat is a a shot?A SHOT is one uninterrupted run of the camera resulting in a continuous image; put another way, a shot consists of the persistent image produced from the time the camera starts filming until it stops; these shots are then EDITED together in a film to make a sceneSEQUENCE SHOTS encompass a sequence of events instead of editing individual shots togetherVIDEO EXAMPLE

GRADUATE EXAMPLESSHOTS (individual in nature): SHOTS EDITED together in a film to make a scene: THE GRADUATE: 9:38 12:49 (Benjamin and Mrs. Robinson have a drink)SEQUENCE SHOT encompasses a sequence of events instead of editing individual shots together: THE GRADUATE: 15:56 19:47 (Mr. Robinson comes home and talks to Ben)BOTH ARE USED TO CREATE SCENES!

SCENEWhat is a SCENE?: A narrative unit composed of one or more shots; confined to a single period of time and typically takes place in one locationCROSS-CUTTING exception =Scenes that depict two or more actions occurring at the same time but in different places; also known as PARALLEL ACTIONSILENCE OF THE LAMBS example

CAMERA DISTANCEWhat is a CAMERA DISTANCE?: The perceived distance between the camera and the subject; the actual distance is often impossible to gauge because of the LENS being used; what were talking about is how far away things on the screen LOOK to the audience

BASIC TYPES OF CAMERA DISTANCE SHOTSEXTREME LONG SHOTThe camera is perceived to be a great distance from the subjectOften also called an establishing shot

8 BASIC TYPES OF CAMERA DISTANCE SHOTSLONG SHOTTypically when the camera is perceived to be far away enough so an entire human body is visible in the frame and in which some portion of the setting is apparent

BASIC TYPES OF CAMERA DISTANCE SHOTSFULL SHOTTypically when the camera is perceived to be at a distance where an entire human body nearly fills the frame from top to bottom

BASIC TYPES OF CAMERA DISTANCE SHOTSMEDIUM SHOTTypically when the camera is perceived to be at a distance to show the figure from the waist up (approximately)Medium approximates HALF

BASIC TYPES OF CAMERA DISTANCE SHOTSMEDIUM SHOTA medium shot may also be designated by the number of main figures in it or how theyre seen:TWO-SHOTTHREE-SHOTOVER-THE-SHOULDER (OTS)

BASIC TYPES OF CAMERA DISTANCE SHOTSCLOSE-UP SHOTA close-up shot is when the camera is perceived to be close enough to the subject so it fills the frame; from shoulders up on a face but the main subject can be anythingEXTREME CLOSE-UP is when the camera is perceived to be so close, nothing is visible except the main subject, whatever it might be

DEPTH OF FIELDWhat is DEPTH OF FIELD?DEPTH OF FIELD is the portion of the frame that is IN FOCUS in the shotSHALLOW DEPTH OF FIELD = a limited area of the image is in focusLARGE DEPTH OF FIELD/DEEP FOCUS = a large area of the image appears to be in focus

RACK + SOFT FOCUSWhat is RACK FOCUS?RACK FOCUS is when the depth of field is used to direct/manipulate the viewers attentionTHE GRADUATE: 01:06:40 01:06:57 (Elaine realizes Benjamin has slept with her mother)SOFT FOCUS is when the image is blurred with diffused lighting, filters, and a shallow depth of field

CAMERA ANGLESWhat is a CAMERA ANGLE?CAMERA ANGLE is how the camera is tilted/position towards its subject; from what ANGLE is the physical camera looking at the subject?

CAMERA ANGLESEYE-LEVEL SHOTAlso known as the straight-on shot; level with the subjects face with NO ANGLE to the cameras position; NEUTRAL and not adding to the dramatic intensity of the shot

CAMERA ANGLESLOW-ANGLE SHOTThe camera is shooting up from a LOW point; increases the perceived height of the subject

CAMERA ANGLESHIGH-ANGLE SHOTThe camera is shooting down from a HIGH point; tends to diminish the stature of the subject and create an impression of superiority on the part of the viewer

CAMERA ANGLESUSING ANGLES TO CONVEY MEANINGIn this scene, the director uses ANGLES to depict the relationship between Benjamin and his fatherThe Graduate: 41:00 41:55 (Ben and his father talk while Ben floats in the pool)

CAMERA ANGLESBIRDS EYE-ANGLE SHOTAlso known as an AERIAL shot; the camera is positioned high overhead usually on a crane or helicopter, or top of building and creates a sense of godlike omniscience

CAMERA ANGLESOBLIQUE/DUTCH-ANGLE SHOTThe camera is tilted to one side so that the horizon line is no longer horizontal but skewed; tends to create a sense of disorientation, chaos, or confusion for a character, shot, or scene

CAMERA MOVEMENTSMOBILE FRAMINGUnlike still photography, cinema has the ability to employ MOBILE FRAMING and move the camera during filming; this makes it possible to follow the action, as well as convey emotions or induce responses in viewers

CAMERA MOVEMENTSPAN SHOT MOVEMENTWhen the camera PANS, the camera does not actually change location, but it does pivot from side to side horizontally as if on a tripodVIDEO EXAMPLE

CAMERA MOVEMENTSTILT SHOT MOVEMENTWhen the camera TILTS, the camera does not actually change location, but it does pivot up or down vertically as if on a tripodVIDEO EXAMPLE

CAMERA MOVEMENTSDOLLY/TRACKING SHOT MOVEMENTThis is when the entire camera moves; typically mounted on a wheeled platform and guided along rails; it may move forward or backward, from side to side, or even in an arc as it filmsTHE GRADUATE: 58:36 59:40 (Elaine flees the club, Benjamin follows)

CAMERA MOVEMENTSDOLLY/TRACKING SHOT MOVEMENTDOLLY/TRACKING SHOT MONTAGE

CAMERA MOVEMENTSCRANE SHOT MOVEMENTThis is when the camera is attached to a movable arm that allows the camera to move in any direction while floating above the groundWINGSCRANE SHOT MONTAGE

CAMERA MOVEMENTSHANDHELD MOVEMENTThis is achieved just as it sounds, using just your hands to hold the camera with no artificial stabilization so often a jittery, realistic feel is conveyedTHE GRADUATE: 21:38 23:25 (Benjamin enters the pool in scuba gear)BIRDMAN example

CAMERA MOVEMENTSSTEADICAM MOVEMENTAllows for greater portability and ease of camera movement than a dolly or crane shotSTEADICAM SCIENCE AT THE MOVIES

CAMERA MOVEMENTSZOOM MOVEMENTWhile technically not a movement, a ZOOM shot can sometimes resemble a DOLLY shot; by zooming IN, part of the image can be enlarged; by zooming OUT, part of the image can be made smallerZOOM SHOT MONTAGEZOOM out in The Graduate: 01:07:10 01:07:20 (Mrs. Robinson tells Benjamin Goodbye)

CAMERA MOVEMENTSDOLLY ZOOM MOVEMENTThis movement combines the DOLLY and the ZOOM to create a singularly unique effect; you do this by dollying/moving backwards while simultaneously zooming inDOLLY ZOOM MONTAGE

IN-CLASS WORKSHEETWell watch the opening and ending scenes from THE GRADUATE and discuss the various CAMERA DISTANCES, CAMERA ANGLES, and CAMERA MOVEMENTS employed in each

IN-CLASS WORKSHEETOPENING SCENE/CREDITS:00:00:00 00:02:55

IN-CLASS WORKSHEETCLOSING SCENE/CREDITS:01:37:00 01:41:19

LOOKING AHEADREAD CHAPTER THREE: MISE EN SCNEIN-CLASS QUIZ: CHAPTER TWO NEXT WEEKFILM SCREENING: TBD