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  • Water supply vs Water Demand

    1

    CATCHMENT area

  • Water supply vs Water Demand Supply Demand

    Current status / availability of water resources

    Water uses: WASH, food produc?on, energy, ecosystem, etc

    Current status / availability of water infrastructure

    Water users: nr of people, nr of schools, nr of health centres, etc

    Dependence between water sources in the systems

    Re-use poten?al between different uses

    Water quality issues at sources and infrastructure

    Wate quality demands

    Spa?al and seasonal differences in supply Spa?al and seasonal differences in demand

    Technology op?ons based on water resources

    Technology demand

    2

    Does the supply meet the demand?

  • Water Demand

    Basic: •  Uses: domes?c (WASH), produc?ve •  Users: nr of households, nr of people •  Demands towards water quality à Field survey / mapping Second layer:

    •  Seasonal demand differences •  Now and the future (climate change, popula?on growth, etc) à Desk research

    3

  • Example of water demand calcula?on (domes?c)

    4

    Ward N r o f h h (2016) Expected nr of hh (2030)

    N r o f p e o p l e (2016)

    Expected nr of people (2030)

    Litres per hh / day (2030)

    Litres per day/ ward (2030)

    1 76 99 456 593 270 26.676

    2 37 48 222 289 270 12.987

    3 42 55 252 328 270 14.742

    4 118 153 708 920 270 41.418

    5 124 161 744 967 270 43.524

    6 155 202 930 1.209 270 54.405

    7 117 152 702 913 270 41.067

    8 197 256 1182 1.537 270 69.147

    9 171 222 1026 1.334 270 60.021

    Total 1,037 1.348 6222 8.089 2.430 363.987

  • Water demand considera?ons

    •  Is there compe??on between water for WASH and other uses (now and in the future)? •  Is there re-use poten?al between different uses? •  If there is already a specific technology demand, is this is the appropriate technology?

    5

  • Water supply

    Basic: •  Current status / availability of water resources •  Current status / availability of water infrastructure •  Dependence between water sources in the systems •  Water quality issues at sources and infrastructure à Field survey / mapping Second layer: •  Spa?al and seasonal differences in supply •  Technology op?ons based on water resources à Desk research

    6

  • Water demand vs supply

    7

    Water resources Water infrastructure Water demand 2016 + 2030 Groundwater: Surface water:

    Rainfall

    M3 / day M3 / day

  • Example of water supply

    Water resources ExisJng water infrastructure Groundwater: river base flow, spring sources and wells hold water throughout the year (>1500 m3)

    At least 400 m3/ day through river intakes and piped system (es?ma?on based on informa?on that water is available throughout the year), at least 150 m3 from springs and wells

    Surface water: river, fluctua?ng but holding water throughout the year, and ponds withhold rainfall and runoff water (>400 m3)

    Storage tanks (8): total volume 160 m3/day (based on average size of 20 m3 per storage tank, and assump?on that piped system will refill tanks during the night)

    Rainfall: approximately 1.500 mm per year, dry season from February to July (6 months)

    Ponds (4): 400 m3 (assump?on 100 m3 per pond)

    All water resources have potenJal for use

    > 550 m3 per day

    8

  • Water demand vs supply

    9

    Water supply Water demand

    Sources Infrastructure Uses and Users Groundwater: river base flow, spring sources and wells

    At least 400 m3/ day through river intakes and piped system (es?ma?on based on informa?on that water is available throughout the year), at least 150 m3 from springs and wells

    Domes?c: 40 litres p.p.p.d. No of households: 1.348

    No of people: 8.089

    Surface water: river, fluctua?ng but holding water throughout the year, and ponds withhold rainfall and runoff water

    Storage tanks (8): total volume 160 m3/day (based on average size of 20 m3 per storage tank, and assump?on that piped system will refill tanks during the night)

    Cacle: unknown, but all people have cacle, some have large herds of cows, ponds are used as well as river water

    Rainfall: approximately 1.500 mm per year

    Ponds (4): 400 m3 (assump?on 100 m3 per pond)

    Irriga?on: unknown, but there is a lot of irrigated (gravity-led) land and approximately 30% is used for sugar cane Fish farming: unknown, but some ponds are used for fish farming

    Total for domesJc uses

    > 550 m3 per day

    364 m3 per day

  • Water demand vs supply

    • P – R – G – E - T = △S P = Precipita?on R = Runoff G = total Groundwater ouglow ET = Evapo-Transpira?on △S = Change in Storage

  • Water demand vs supply Scenario 1: No interven?on •  P = 500 mm •  E = 3% of P •  T = 2% of P •  R = 45% of P •  G = 10% of P

    •  Scenario 2: With Interven?ons •  P= 500 mm •  E = 3% of P •  T = 7% of P •  R = 15 % of P •  G = 15 % of P

    •  Es?mate how much storage (mm) is leh in the watershed in the two scenarios?

    •  Calculate the addi?onal amount of water (m3) retained in the catchment.

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