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Waste Incineration


  • Municipal Solid WasteIncineration

    The World BankWashington, D.C.



  • 1999 The International Bank for Reconstructionand Development / THE WORLD BANK1818 H Street, N.W.Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A.

    All rights reservedManufactured in the United States of AmericaFirst printing August 1999

    This report has been prepared by the staff of the World Bank. The judgments expressed do not necessari-ly reflect the views of the Board of Executive Directors or of the governments they represent.

    The material in this publication is copyrighted. The World Bank encourages dissemination of its workand will normally grant permission promptly.

    Permission to photocopy items for internal or personal use, for the internal or personal use of specificclients, or for educational classroom use, is granted by the World Bank, provided that the appropriate fee ispaid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, U.S.A., tele-phone 978-750-8400, fax 978-750-4470. Please contact the Copyright Clearance Center before photocopyingitems.

    For permission to reprint individual articles or chapters, please fax your request with complete informa-tion to the Republication Department, Copyright Clearance Center, fax 978-750-4470.

    All other queries on rights and licenses should be addressed to the World Bank at the address above orfaxed to 202-522-2422.

    Cover photo by unknown

  • iii

    Foreword v


    1 Introduction 3Methodology 3The Flow and Management of Municipal Solid Waste 4Incineration Project Summary 4

    2 Waste as Fuel 9Key Issues 9Waste Generation and Composition 10Heating Value 11Waste Surveys/Forecasts 13

    3 Institutional Framework 19Key Issues 19Waste Sector 20Energy Sector 21Incineration Plant Organization and Management 21

    4 Incineration Plant Economics and Finance 25Key Issues 25Economics 25Financing 29Cost Benefit Assessment 31

    5 The Project Cycle 33Key Issues 33Feasibility Phase 33Project Preparation Phase 33Project Implementation Phase 36Socio-Economic Aspects and Stakeholder Participation 37

    References 41


  • iv Measuring Country Performance on Health


    Technical Plant Overview 45

    1 Plant Location 47Key Issues 47Site Feasibility Assessment 47

    2 Incineration Technology 51Key Issues 51Pre-treatment of Waste 52Design and Layout of the Mass Burning Incineration System 54

    3 Energy Recovery 59Key Issues 59Emergy Recovery Technology 59

    4 Air Pollution Control 65Key Issues 65Volume and Composition of the Flue Gas 66Environmental Standards 67Air Pollution Control Technology 68APC Systems Overview 74Induced Draught Fan and Stack 74

    5 Incineration Residues 77Key Issues 77Slag 77Grate Siftings 78Boiler and Fly Ash 79Residues from Dry and Semi-dry Flue Gas Treatment 79Sludges from Water Treatment 80Spent Adsorbent from Dioxin Filters 80Other Materials 80

    6 Operation and Maintenance 83Key Issues 83Typical Plant Organization and Staffing 83Crucial Supplies and External Services 85Training of Workers, Codes of Practice, and Occupational Safety and Health 85

    7 Environmental Impact and Occupational Health 87Key Issues 87Environmental Impact 87Occupational Safety and Health 90

    References 93

    Municipal Solid Waste Incineration Checklist 95

  • vForeword

    Solid waste management is in crisis in many of theworlds largest urban areas as populations attracted tocities continues to grow. This has led to ever increasingquantities of domestic solid waste while space for dis-posal decreases. Municipal managers are looking to thedevelopment of sanitary landfills around the peripheryof their cities as a first solution. However, siting andpreparation of a landfill requires the acquisition of largeareas as well as good day to day operation in order to min-imize potential negative environmental impacts.Another approach that has recently caught the attentionof decisionmakers is mass burn incineration similar tosystems found in the OECD countries. However, capitaland operating requirements for these plants are general-ly an order of magnitude greater than required for land-fills. Project developers armed with rosy financial fore-casts can be found in all corners of the globe encouragingmunicipal officials to consider incineration.

    In order to assist local officials with developing costeffective strategies for dealing with solid waste manage-

    ment, the World Bank has begun a program of provid-ing high level advice on approaches that are basicallyfinancially self supporting, socially and environmental-ly responsible. This Technical Guidance Report providesthe foundation for such a detailed evaluation of solidwaste incineration systems. A document for making amore preliminary assessment is the accompanyingDecision Makers Guide to Incineration of MunicipalSolid Waste.

    This report should be used with caution since bothtechnical and financial feasibility are very site-specif-ic. Readers with general interest and technical spe-cialists will find this report useful in making theirassessments. A comprehensive solid waste manage-ment program may include several options phased inover a long period of time during which refuse quan-tities, constituents and the overall economic picturemay change significantly. This uncertainty and asso-ciated risks must be incorporated into the planningprocess.

    Kristalina GeorgievaSector ManagerEnvironment and Social

    Development Sector UnitEast Asia and Pacific RegionThe World BankWashington, DCUSA

    Keshav VarmaSector ManagerUrban Development

    Sector UnitEast Asia and Pacific RegionThe World BankWashington, DCUSA

  • The Report was made possible through the generoussupport of the Danish government. The report wasprepared by Mr. J. Haukohl, Mr. T. Rand and Mr. U.Marxen of Rambll. Three people were instrumental inencouraging the preparation of these publications,Lars Mikkel Johannessen, currently with the Danishgovernment, Dr. Carl Bartone, Principal Environ-mental Specialist and Gabriel Boyer. The Task Manager

    for this work was Jack Fritz, Environmental Engineer.The editors were Mellen Candage and Carol Levie ofGrammarians, Inc.

    In addition to internal reviewers, we also thank theexternal peer reviewers for their time and comments,specifically Stephen Schwarz, PE of Malcolm Pirnie,Inc. and Anil Chatterjee, PE of Chatterjee andAssociates.



  • vii

    Abbreviations and Symbols

  • A Ash content per kg of dry sampleAPC Air pollution controlBO Build and operateBOO Build, own, and operateBOOT Build, own, operate, transferC Combustion fractionC Degrees CelsiusCBA Cost benefit assessmentCHP Combined heat and powerDBO Design, build, and operateDC Direct currentDS Dry substanceEA Environmental assessmentEIA Environmental impact assessmentESP Electrostatic precipitatorEU European UnionGDP Gross domestic productGR Growth rateGWh Gigawatt hour

    h HourHawf Ash and water free calorific valueHinf Lower (inferior) calorific valueHinf, overall Overall lower calorific valueHRD Human resource developmentHsup Upper (superior) calorific valueHsup,DS Superior calorific value of dry samplekcal KilocaloriesK KelvinKF Key figurekJ KilojoulekPa KilopascalLCV Lower calorific valueLOI Loss of ignitionLP Low pressurem MeterMCW Weight of condensed water per kg of dry

    samplemg Milligrams

    viii Municipal Solid Waste Incineration


  • The Technical Guidance Report provides back-ground information for the Decision Makers Guideto Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Incineration. TheReport focuses on large-scale incineration plantsfor large urban areas or intermunicipal coopera-tives. It does not address hazardous and infectiouswastes.

    The Decision Makers Guide is a practical tool fora preliminary assessment of whether the key crite-ria for a solid waste incineration scheme are pre-sent.

    The Technical Guidance Report provides decisionmakers and their advisers with more elaborate infor-mation on how to investigate and assess the degree towhich the key criteria are fulfilled. Hence, the Reportcomprises a comprehensive account of many aspectsof waste incineration. Part 1 of the Report providesinformation needed to assess the feasibility of MSWincineration. Part 2 covers technical aspects and theavailable technologies related to an MSW incinerationplant.

    The Decision Makers Guide primarily addressesan audience at the political level, whereas theTechnical Guidance Report presumes some degreeof general technical knowledge. However, noexpertise within the field of waste incineration isrequired to understand the Technical GuidanceReport.

    Finally, note that the Technical Guidance Report isfar from being a design manual for an MSW incinera-tion plant. The responsibility, the final feasibilityassessment and the consecutive design of such a plantmust be entrusted to experienced consultants and sup-pliers with an extensive track record in this complexsubject.


    The Technical Guidance Report is organized asfollows:

    Part I

    Introduction Waste as Fuel Institutional Framework Incineration Plant Economics and Finance The Project Cycle

    Part II

    Plant Location Incineration Technology Energy Recovery Air Pollution Control Incineration Residues Operation and Maintenance Environmental Impact and Occupational Health

    Each chapter is standardized to make informationeasy to access, as follows:

    Key issuesMain points, critical issues, and deci-sions to be made.

    Key criteriaKey criteria are listed in order ofimportance, using the following symbols to empha-size priority:

    3 3 3 Mandatory3 3 Strongly Advi


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