zero waste 2020 versus incineration
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DESCRIPTIONZero Waste 2020 versus Incineration. Dr Paul Connett Professor of Chemistry St Lawrence University, Canton, NY Italy, January, 2005 Paul @ fluoride ALERT .org www.no-burn.org. Arguments against incineration. Toxic air emissions Toxic ash Extremely expensive - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Zero Waste 2020versusIncinerationDr Paul ConnettProfessor of ChemistrySt Lawrence University, Canton, NY
Italy, January, 2005
Paul @ fluorideALERT.orgwww.no-burn.org
Arguments against incinerationToxic air emissionsToxic ashExtremely expensiveExtremely unpopular and undemocraticA waste of energy!There are better alternativesIncineration is not sustainable
AIR EMISSIONSCO2 + H2OACID GASES:HCI, HF, SO2NOxTOXIC METALS:Pb, Cd, Hg, As, Cr etcNEW COMPOUNDS:Hundreds of 1) Chlorinated,2) Brominated, and 3) Fluorinated compoundse.g. 1) PCDDs (DIOXINS)PCDFs (FURANS)2) PBDEs (poly brominated diphenyl ethers)3) PFCs (per fluorinated compounds)MODERN ARCHITECTSDO THEIR BEST TO DISGUISE SMOKE STACK
2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN2,3,7,8-TETRA CHLORO DIBENZO DIOXIN
2,3,7,8-TETRA CHLORO DIBENZO FURAN
There are 17 extremely toxic dioxins and furans. They have chlorine at the 2,3,7 and 8 positions: 7 Dioxins and 10 Furans
DIOXINS IN OUR FOODDioxins are fat soluble and persistent and accumulate in the food chain, specially animal fats. Over 90% of our daily dioxin intake comes from dairy products, meat,and fish.
Dioxins - Major Concerns
Current daily intakes from food exceed European allowable daily intakes.Dioxins disrupt several different hormonal systems (e.g. male and female sex hormones, thyroid hormone and insulin).
Dioxins - Major ConcernsOne liter of cows milk gives the same dose of dioxin as breathing air next to the cows for EIGHT MONTHS (Connett and Webster, 1987).
The liver cannot convert dioxins to water soluble products thus they steadily accumulate in human body fat.
A man cannot get rid of dioxins from his fat BUT A woman canBy having a baby!
This means the highest doses of dioxin go to the fetus and have the potential to disrupt fetal development which is under hormonal control.
OUT OF OUR BABIES! WE WANT DIOXIN
Institute of Medicine, 2003Dioxins and Dioxin-like Compounds in the Food Supply
Strategies to Decrease Exposure
July 1, 2003
Institute of Medicine, 2003Fetuses and breastfed infants may be at particular risk from exposure to dioxins due to their potential to cause adverse neurodevelopmental, neurobehavioral, and immune system effects
Institute of Medicine, 2003recommends that the government place a high public health priority on reducing dioxin intakes by girls and young women in the years well before pregnancy is likely to occur.
Substituting low-fat or skim milk, for whole milkand other foods lower in animal fat by girls and young women
WE WANT DIOXIN OUT OF OUR FOOD!
Incineration is not good for agricultureIncinerators burn the organics which are needed for organic farming.Incinerators emit persistent pollutants (like dioxin and toxic metals) which accumulate in food and soil.
Politicians often approve incineration before they have any idea where the toxic ash is going to go!
MODERN TRASH INCINERATORCHUTESECONDARYCHAMBERTURBINEBOILERELECTRICITYSTEAMTRASHBOTTOM ASHFLY ASHTEMP< 200oCSEMI-DRYSCRUBBERFABRIC FILTERWET SCRUBBERDE-NOXACTIVATEDCHARCOALCa(OH) 2SUSPENSIONAMMONIAINJECTIONGRATES
ASHTHE INCINERATOR CRISISCatch-22PollutionEquipment3-(4) TONS TRASH1 TON ASH Fly ash fails EP TOX test 100% time Bottom ash fails 38% timeCombined ash fails 47% time(EDF, 1988)10% FLY ASH90% BOTTOM ASH
INCINERATOR ASH - Sweden
Incineration is not good for tourismMany tourists will be coming from communities which have rejected incineration
Incineration is extremely unpopularIn the US over 300 incinerator proposals defeated since 1985In 1985, NYC wanted 6, but got none! In 1985, California wanted 35 , but only got 3!In 1985, NJ wanted 17, but only got 5 and those 5 now have an accumulated debt of 1.6 billion dollars!US has not built a trash incinerator for more than 8 years.
Italian taxpayers are being deceivedThe fees to deliver a ton of waste to the incinerator will be more than for the alternativesThe electricity produced will cost taxpayers three times as much as other sources of electricity - because of an Italian law providing a huge subsidy to incinerators.
INCINERATION BURNS FINITE RESOURCES --
EUROPE DOES NOT RECOGNIZE INCINERATION AS A RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCE.
Incineration is a poor investmentMost of the money spent on incinerators goes into complicated machinery and leaves the community, whereas
The money spent on the alternatives goes into jobs and stays in the community.
With incineration, after 20 years all you are left with is a huge pile of toxic ash, very few extra jobs, and
You will have moved no closer to a sustainable society.
Even if we made incineration safeWe would never make it sensible.It simply does not make sensespending so much tax-payers money destroying resources we should be sharing with the future.
INCINERATION IS NOT SUSTAINABLE
UNFORTUNATELYMANYPOWERFUL PEOPLEARE NOT INTERESTEDINSUSTAINABILITY
Their view of the world lookssomething like this
By the time a high schoolstudent leaves school in the US, he or shewill have watched over350,000 TV commercials.
Paul Hawken The Ecology of Commerce.
We are living on this planet as if we had another one to go toWe cannot run a throwaway society on a finite planetIncinerators simply BURN the evidence of this unacceptable practiceWe need to face the real problem
Our task is not to dispose of waste but to stop making it
Unfortunately, too many European engineers are getting better and better at tackling questions at the wrong end of the problem
A BACK-END THINKER1. A CUP2. A BUCKET3. A FOOT PUMP4. AN ELECTRIC PUMP
A FRONT-END THINKER !
Waste is not a technological problemit is an industrial designproblem
We have to design azero waste society
A Citizens Agenda for Zero Wastewww.GRRN.ORG (ENGLISH)www.Ambientefuturo.interfree.it (ITALIAN)
VIDEOSpaul@fluorideALERT.orgOn the Road to Zero WastePart 1: Nova Scotia, CanadaPart 2: Burlington, Vermont, USPart 3: Canberra, Australia.Part 4: San Francisco Bay AreaPieces of ZeroCollection 1: Leadership and Creativity
MOVING TOWARDS THE FRONT END -we need to design waste out of the industrial systemNO TO INCINERATIONNO TO LANDFILL
To achieve Zero WasteWe need three things:1)COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITY (at back end)2)INDUSTRIAL RESPONSIBILITY (at front end)3)GOOD LEADERSHIP
Community ResponsibilityBegins with separation of compostables, recyclables and residuals (e.g. San Francisco).Drop off centers for household toxics (e.g. Nova Scotia)Centers for reuse & repair (and retraining) of appliances and furniture etc (e.g. Burlington, Vermont)Deconstruction -not demolition- of old buildings (e.g. Canberra, Australia)Residual screening facilities (e.g. Nova Scotia).
The San Francisco ProgramRobert HaleyRecycling Program ManagerDepartment of the EnvironmentCity and County of San Francisco
San FranciscoPopulation = 850,000Little spaceEducation has to be done in three languagesOver 50% diversion reached by 200063% diversion reached by 200475% diversion by 2010 (goal)100% diversion by 2020 i.e. Zero Waste
The Fantastic 3
ALL FOOD SCRAPS, YARD TRIMMINGS AND COMPOSTABLE PAPER GO IN THE GREEN CART
ALL BOTTLES, CANS AND RECYCLABLE PAPER GO IN THE BLUE CART
WHAT CANT BE RECYCLED OR COMPOSTED GOES IN THE BLACK CART
PROGRAM BROCHURE OUTSIDE
BUS SHELTER AD
SPLIT COMPACTING SIDE-LOADERS FOR RECYCLABLES AND REFUSE
@ Pier 96Recycle Central
DEDICATED COMPACTING SIDE-LOADERS FOR COMPOSTABLES
SMALL BUSINESSES ARE COLLECTED WITH RESIDENCES
RICH COMPOST READY FOR MARKET
ORGANIC PRODUCE RETURNS TO SF MARKETS & RESTAURANTS
Canberra, Australia.Canberra (the capitol of Australia) was the first city worldwide to declare a zero waste goal.
Law passed in 1996: No Waste by 2010
NEW ZEALANDBy 2004 over 60% of the municipalities in NZ had declared a Zero Waste goal by 2020.
50% waste diverted from landfills in 5 years (Halifax ~ 60%)1000 jobs created since April 1996 Another 2000 jobs created in industries using separated materials
Materials re-used in manufacturing in Nova Scotia:All corrugated cardboardAll newspapers, magazines, & other paperSome plasticsAll waste paintAll organic materialAll glassAll tiresSteel goes to Quebec
MORE TOXICSNON-RECYCLABLE PACKAGINGAND OBJECTS - RESEARCH FOR BETTER INDUSTRIAL DESIGN RESIDUAL SCREENING & RESEARCH FACILITYSCREENING FACILITY AT COMMUNITY CONTROLLED LANDFILLMORERECYCLABLESDIRTYORGANICFRACTIONINTERIM LANDFILLBIOLOGICAL STABILIZATION
The message to industryIf we cant re-use it, recycle it or compost it industry shouldnt be making it.We need better industrial design for the 21st Century.
A comparisonWith incinerationYou convert three tons of trash to one ton of ash that nobody wants!
With a zero waste strategyYou convert three tons of trash into:One ton of recyclablesOne ton of compostables, andOne ton of education!
Pay by bag2. MATERIALS RECOV