Volunteer Management Literature Review

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    Volunteer Management $

    Introduction

    magine a world witout volunteers# Firefigters may or may not arrive6 sear! and

    res!ue teams would no longer e7ist6 and otline !alls for domesti! abuse or sui!ide 8revention

    would go unanswered# Teatres6 !oirs6 and dan!e grou8s would no longer 8rovide !reative

    ins8iration and vibran!y to our !ommunities# /tray !ats and dogs would roam te streets# Free

    !lini!s would !lose teir doors witout te aid of volunteer do!tors# 5o would assist te most

    vulnerable 8o8ulations in tis !ountry9 Volunteers give a88ro7imately 1,) billion U/% wort

    of donated time ea! year &Cor8oration for ;ational and Community /ervi!e6 2ation at least on!e from /e8tember 2ations would

    not ave te !a8a!ity to re!ruit6 train6 engage6 motivate6 and retain volunteers#

    Troug an investigation of !urrent resear!6 tis 8a8er will assess and analy>e te many

    fa!ets of volunteer management# First6 tis 8a8er will 8rovide various definitions of volunteers

    and teir roles witin non?8rofit organi>ations# Ten a dis!ussion of te field of volunteer

    management will be 8rovided6 wi! will outline stru!ture6 administration6 and te role of eti!s#

    Tis 8a8er will e78lore te to8i!s of uman resour!es witin volunteer management in!luding

    volunteer motivation6 re!ruitment6 sele!tion6 training6 retention6 and oter various issues witin

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    Volunteer Management )

    te field# Lastly6 te im8ortan!e of strong ris4 management 8oli!ies for various volunteer

    8rograms will be dis!ussed#

    Definition of Volunteer and Volunteer Roles

    = widely a!!e8ted definition of a volunteer is a 8erson wo gives of teir time and

    talents witout !ontra!tual !ommitment and witout re!eiving monetary reimbursement &Cnaan

    et. al6 1--3'# Te Cor8oration for ;ational Community /ervi!e &2

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    Volunteer Management *

    altruisti! motives6 but tis doesnAt in!lude tose wo are reuired to volunteer in order to fulfill

    an obligation to te state6 as 8art of a !ourt?order# ;or does tis definition identify te differen!e

    between volunteers wo su88ort non8rofit organi>ations6 and tose wo sim8ly el8 oters in

    need in te !ommunity on teir own volition &2ations !ould not o!!ur trougout te United /tates witout

    !oordination and 8lanning under a volunteer management 8rogram# =!!ording to Connors &2

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    Volunteer Management E

    managed &/tid ( Brada!6 2ation will

    yield results# Tese a!tivities in!lude budgeting6 instituting 8ro8er systems6

    organi>ational stru!tures and 8ro!esses6 and monitoring 8erforman!e#

    Many organi>ations fall sort and are unable to 8erform 8ro8erly# =s a result of 8oor

    management more tan one?tird of tose wo volunteer do not return to give of teir time te

    following year &0isner et al#6 2ation and te wor4 tey will be doing# =fter 8la!ing a volunteer in

    teir res8e!tive role witin te organi>ation6 a more formal training sould o!!ur# Trougout

    te time tat a volunteer serves wit an organi>ation6 tey sould be given am8le o88ortunity to

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    Volunteer Management ,

    8rovide feedba!46 and to be evaluated on te su!!ess of teir wor4# Communi!ation wit

    volunteers is !ru!ial for te wor4 to be reliable and ig uality &%ebar ( /to4es6 2ensi8 and ilantro8y

    2# Res8e!t

    $# Res8onsibility

    )# Com8assion and Generosity

    *# Husti!e and Fairness

    3# Trustwortiness

    Bell et al# &2ation#

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    Volunteer Management -

    Human Resource Issues in Volunteer Management

    n an interview wit eter %ru!4er &2ations to treat

    volunteers as un8aid staff members# n te management of staff6 as well as volunteers6 many

    uman resour!e issues are to be !onsidered and observed# Tis se!tion is devoted to te

    dis!ussion of volunteer motivation6 re!ruitment6 sele!tion6 training6 retention6 and oter issues in

    te field of volunteer management#

    Volunteer Motivation

    Volunteers mentor yout6 to tea! 0/L !lasses6 8rovide trail u84ee8 wit !ity6 state6 or

    national 8ar4s6 figt fires6 8ut on events6 !oa! s8orts teams6 bring meals to te elderly6 and 8lay

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    Volunteer Management 1ation6 develo8ing 8rofessional !onta!ts6 8roviding entry to a 8arti!ular organi>ation6

    and so!ial 8ana!e# from te good feelings of el8ing oters to valuable s4ills6 a greater sense of

    !ommunity6 to 8rofessional develo8ment and networ4ing6 volunteers ave a lot to gain from teir

    un8aid wor4#

    Volunteer motivation is !om8le7 and !annot be sim8ly identified as altruisti! or egoisti!#

    Resear! of te systemi! uality of life model suggests tat volunteer motivation is a !om8le7

    !ombination of egoism and altruism6 based in idea tat uality of life is dire!tly related to te

    uality of life of oters &/ye6 2

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    Volunteer Management 12

    Recruitment/Selection

    rgani>ations wit large numbers of volunteers entering into te organi>ation to

    volunteer ave eiter dis!overed te se!ret to strong volunteer re!ruitment6 or tey ave devoted

    time to designing 8rograms tat attra!t !ommunity members to 8arti!i8ate# =ttra!ting volunteers

    to 8artner wit organi>ations to !reate 8ositive !ange in te !ommunity reuires 4nowledge

    about te !urrent volunteer demogra8i!s and motivation6 an organi>ed volunteer 8rogram6 and

    strong mar4eting strategies#

    =!!ording to %olni!er and Randle &2eman and 0llemers

    &2

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    Volunteer Management 1$

    volunteers stays in line wit te mission6 always reaffirming te need for assistan!e in !reating

    8ositive !ange in te !ommunity#

    =fter volunteers ave been re!ruited6 sele!tion and 8la!ement is a 8ro!ess tat ta4es time6

    8lanning6 and strong leadersi8# ne role of te volunteer manager is to interview6 sele!t6 and

    8la!e volunteers in 8ositions tat fit bot te needs of te organi>ation and te individual &5olf6

    2ation#

    Retention

    Re!ruiting6 sele!ting and training volunteers ta4es a large amount of time and resour!es#

    Retaining tose volunteers is one of te largest struggles tat volunteer managers and non8rofit

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    Volunteer Management 1)

    organi>ationsA sustainability# =bout $*J of volunteers will leave witin te first year6 and te

    average time tat a single volunteers s8ends wit an organi>ation is a year and a alf &%avila6

    2ations to develo8 8rograms tat understand te needs of ea! individual volunteer and

    ow to meet tose needs#

    Understanding individual volunteer motivation and 8roviding a s8a!e for volunteers to

    !arry out teir needs will result in long term satisfa!tion and !ommitment to an organi>ation#

    5en organi>ations 8rovide o88ortunities and tas4s tat mat! an individualAs main motivation6

    te volunteer will generally be more satisfied and !ontinue to serve wit te organi>ation

    &/tu4as6 et# al#6 2ation6 and volunteers sould ave te

    o88ortunity to see ow te wor4 tey do is dire!tly benefiting tose im8a!ted by te organi>ation

    &Millette ( Gagne6 2

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    Volunteer Management 1*

    5en organi>ations 8rovide detailed volunteer @ob des!ri8tions6 volunteers are able to

    !onstru!t realisti! 8sy!ologi!al !ontra!ts &Kim et al#6 2ation may la!4 te s4ills

    ne!essary to !om8lete various tas4s related to volunteer 8ositions# f a volunteer as te 8assion

    and is driven by te mission of te organi>ation6 tis !ommitment will be strengtened by te

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    Volunteer Management 13

    offering of 8rofessional develo8ment training# Volunteer motivation and retention are bot

    !losely tied to volunteer training# Volunteers wo are motivated by te idea of 8rofessional

    develo8ment will be more satisfied and more a8t to !ontinue to volunteer#

    Training serves as a 8ra!ti!al means for volunteers to 8erform better in teir volunteer

    8ositions6 in!reasing te !a8a!ity of te organi>ation to serve to te !ommunity# /ome volunteer

    8ositions reuire more training tan oters# t ta4es a large investment of time and resour!es to

    !reate a !om8reensive training !urri!ulum designed to su88ort individuals wit limited

    edu!ation and e78erien!e to instru!t a !lassroom &Iagi6 2ation# Volunteers are more satisfied wit teir 8ositions if tey are able to gain

    a sense of !ommunity6 and it was te training sessions tat 8rovided volunteers wit te

    o88ortunity to get to 4now one anoter &Costa6 et al6 2

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    Volunteer Management 1E

    Many organi>ations la!4 time and resour!es to develo8 8ro8er trainings# Terefore it is

    very im8ortant tat non8rofits resear! te most effe!tive and innovative means to deliver

    trainings# =!!ording to Lyles et al6 &2

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    Volunteer Management 1,

    Risk Management when Managing Volunteers

    =lready non8rofit organi>ations are stret!ed tin for time and resour!es6 tis ma4es

    develo8ing 8ro8er ris4 management e7tremely im8ortant# 5en a sim8le lawsuit !ould ave te

    8otential to !lose down a small non8rofit6 it is !riti!al tat organi>ations set u8 te 8ro8er

    8oli!ies and 8ro!edures to mitigate ris4# Many organi>ations stray away from develo8ing 8ro8er

    ris4 management 8oli!ies be!ause tey see it as unaffordable6 wile also finding te use of

    te!ni!al business language intimidating &+erman6 2ation

    to serve te !ommunity#

    Te ris4 related to volunteer 8rograms in!ludes in@ury or loss wile volunteering for te

    organi>ation6 as well as 8otential !laims filed against te organi>ation or against te volunteer

    be!ause of arm or loss !aused wile serving te organi>ation &Fol46 2

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    Volunteer Management 1-

    if a volunteer is able to 8rove tat te organi>ation did not 8erform a toroug s!reening and

    sele!tion6 te !ourt !ould side against te organi>ation#

    rgani>ations need to 8lan a!!ordingly in te event tat a volunteer is in@ured during

    teir servi!e# Before a volunteer begins teir wor46 it is im8ortant tat tey understand if te

    organi>ation as an insuran!e 8oli!y and wat sort of !overage tey would re!eive if tey were

    in@ured during teir volunteer wor4 &Fol46 2ations

    ave teir volunteers sign waivers6 agreeing tat tey wont sue te organi>ation#

    onclusion

    Volunteers are a !riti!al 8art of te non8rofit se!tor6 and wit e7!ellent volunteer

    managers organi>ations !an effe!tively !reate and maintain su!!essful and innovative 8rograms#

    Volunteer management is greatly related to best 8ra!ti!es of management

    =n e78loration of te !urrent a!ademi! literature regarding volunteer motivation6

    re!ruitment and sele!tion6 training6 and retention sows ow inter!onne!ted ea! of tese temes

    are# Volunteer managers must tailor re!ruitment and retention strategies to fit te needs of ea!

    volunteer based on teir individual motivation# Training is an e7!ellent tool to retain volunteers6

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    Volunteer Management 2>ation#

    t is !ru!ial te volunteer managers s8end a suffi!ient amount of time and resour!es

    develo8ing a strong ris4 management 8rogram in order to be sure tat

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    Volunteer Management 21

    Referen!es

    =sso!iation for Volunteer =dministration# &2eman6 0#6( 0llemers6 ;# &2

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    Volunteer Management 22

    data !olle!tion#$onprofit Management Leadership6 /&$'6 2*-?2E3#

    Brudney6 H# ( Mei@s6 L# &2

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    Volunteer Management 2$

    Costa6 C#6 Cali86 L#6 ( Green6 C# &2evie%6 $2?$E#

    Fin4elstein6 M# =# &2

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    Volunteer Management 2)

    ;are rofessional6 6&2'6 22?2$ 28#

    Garner6 H# T6 ( Garner6 L# T# &2

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    Volunteer Management 2*

    M!=llum6 Kristie# &2

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    Volunteer Management 23

    /tid6 %#6 ( Brada!6 H# &2

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