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  • 1. Low Vision and Blindness Lois Gumataotao and Gladys Uy ED 443G: Assistive/ Adaptive Technology November 5, 2008 Dr. Jacqui Cyrus

2. Objectives

  • 1.Be able to divide visual disabilities into two functional subgroups
  • 2.Discuss ways to accommodate the general education setting for students with visual disabilities
  • 3.Describe types of assistive technology that benefit people with visual disabilities at school, in the workplace and in independent living.

3. IDEA Definition

  • ...means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a childs educational performance.The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

4. Types of Visual Loss

  • Activities:
  • Tunnel Vision
  • Peripheral Vision
  • Temporary Blindness

5. Prevalence/ Incidence

  • Nationally:
  • 1.3 million Americans are legally blind
  • 10 million have low vision
  • About 23,973 students between ages 6-17 receive SPED because of low vision or blindness
  • Locally:
  • GPSS is servicing 10 students that are legally blind or have visual inpairments for SY 08-09

6. Signs of Visual Problems

  • Appearance of the eyes:
  • Excessively watery
  • Are red or continually inflamed
  • Appear crusty
  • Are swollen
  • Problems with School Work:
  • The student has difficulty:
  • Reading small print
  • Identifying details in pictures
  • Difficulty distinguishing letters

7. Causes and Prevention

  • Causes:
  • Prenatal factorsheredity
  • Treatments:
  • Laser treatment, surgery, corneal implants
  • Prevention:
  • Wear protective eye gear
  • Eat vegetables high in Vitamin A

8. Assessment

  • Two types of eye specialists provide diagnosis and treatment:
  • Ophthalmologists (medical
  • doctors who specialize
  • in eye disorders)
  • Optometrists (professionals
  • who measure vision and
  • prescribe corrective lenses

9. Early Intervention

  • Ophthalmologist
  • Occupational therapist
  • Physical therapist
  • Orientation and mobility instructor
  • Social worker

10. Teaching Tips

  • Understand the childs visual functioning capabilities
  • Learn the childs nonverbal cues indicating interest
  • Identify visual features that enhance the childs visual functions (color, contrast, size)

11. Accommodating for Inclusive Environments

  • Making the Classroom safe :
  • Open or close the doors fully
  • Eliminate clutter from the room, especially from the aisles and movement paths
  • Dont leave the room without telling the student.
  • Supplement Instruction :
  • Prepare enlarge-print or braille handouts, summarizing key points
  • Audio record lectures

12. Assistive Technology Devices:

  • Walking Canes
  • Magnifiers
  • Talking watches
  • Talking calculators
  • Braille Books

13. Transition

  • Postsecondary Options:
  • Begin the search for the right college program
  • Register for classes as early as possible
  • Contact readers, locate assistive devices and arrange for accommodations
  • Stay in close communication with faculty
  • Transition to work:
  • Community employment during high school
  • Internships in real work settings during high school

14. Collaboration

  • Teachers should collaborate with the
  • same professionals as in early intervention
  • processes.They are experts in their fields and are able to assist for effective instruction.

15. Youtube

  • 12 year old blind boy plays football

16. References

  • Smith, Deborah (2007), Introduction to Special Education: Making a Difference 6th Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.
  • Youtube
  • Mr.Jason Cruz

17. Thought Provoking Questions

  • If a blind student refuses an auditory/oral test and insists on a braille one, yet you have no materials, what would you do?
  • What kind of classroom rules would you implement if you had all visually impaired or blind students?
  • How would you teach a blind student if the parent refuses special education?


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