Verbal ability for Interviews

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This material talks about the preparation students can make to perform better in interviews

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<ul><li> 1. Training materials1VERBAL ABILITYEffective speaking and writing is the revealing expression of a humanpersonality.Verbal ability tests are designed to test a candidates ability to read,understand &amp; also how he or she uses it to ones advantage. It is requiredin everywhere ranging from a small shop to multicultural MNCs. Sobasically knowing a language is not sufficient, how effectively we are ableto use to our advantage is also more important. In order to test theproficiency, but at the same time the application level is also tested byverbal ability, so if you want a good job, it is equally important that you thebasics of English &amp; also should be able to read, understand &amp; use the language effectively.Verbal ability is broadly classified into the following four categories1) Reading Comprehension2) Sentence Correction3) Sentence Completion4) Verbal AnalogyREADING COMPREHENSIONReading is one of the oldest yet invigorating hobbies of all times. There are different styles of reading like you need anovel thats for fun or just to while away your time or it can also be for understanding, pleasure etc. We readnewspapers for general knowledge, News or some call it the Bathroom hobby because sadly thats where Newspapersare read the most. Well we arent discussing about all those unwanted things, what is more important is that whateverwe read must be comprehended or in simple way the understanding which you have regarding the subject, content ortopic of discussion.Reading comprehension is all about Understanding + Comprehend. I.e. Read, understand &amp; apply it in answering thequestions. Now Reading comprehension passages form an integral part of all question papers, TOEFEL,GRE, BECK etc,the strategy is simple, if you are good in English, you have to prove it!!There are three ways in which we can solve a RC passage;1) Passage to Question2) Question to Passage3) Question Answer Approach1. The first method is the most ancient method followed till date, its a bit time consuming because always reading thepassage completely is good for understanding the main theme/idea/concept of the passage, but in competitive examsthats not the only question which comes in, you need to be faster than the other students. The maximum time given fora RC passage is 30 minutes, but if you take the entire 30 minutes, you will not be able to complete the entire verbalsection or any other part in time, so you need to practice the answering part in 15 minutes (includes reading the passage&amp; the questions).2. The second method is going to the questions directly &amp; then finding the paragraph from which the question is asked &amp;then try to locate the answer from the passage. Here it will become time consuming if you are not able to understandthe question correctly, then it will not </li> <li> 2. Training materials23. The third method is recommended for those who think that I wont be able to make it in the last minute. It is basicallylike the first question will be from the first para &amp; the second question from the second para etc but that wont work inall the situation &amp; hence we dont recommend this method unless you have only 15 minutes left to complete the test &amp;lets be honest here, you wont be successful in getting all the answers correctly, but make sure the questions which youattempt are correct!!The best method to attempt a passage is by comprehending the passage based on the most frequently asked questions.Topic of discussion, Identify the key points in the passageAuthors purpose &amp; toneAny emotional keywords.Has the author concluded the passageDo not get distracted by the usage of jargons or finesse of language, which might be given to confuse you, so what youcan do is substitute the meaning of the jargon by contextual meaning or a known word.Finally a passage needs to be understood &amp; answered; you need only a short term memory. So dont tax yourself &amp; tryto do a research wasting your precious time.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SENTENCE CORRECTIONThis section deals primarily with Grammar. It tests the candidates knowledge &amp; application of the students. If we learn aconcept, how well the candidate can master it, so that even if the questions are twisted &amp; turned, he/she should be ableto find the correct answer. One advantage in this section is you have to find the mistake!! It is entirely based onGrammar starting from the basic level to intermediate level.For scoring in this section, the students should definitely know the eight Parts of Speech &amp; the twelveTensesSome of the important concepts to be refreshed are;1. Verbs should agree with their subjects.( SVA = Subject Verb Agreement)Eg:The students has an English class every week (Incorrect)The students have an English class every week (Correct)Students is a plural subject which should be in concord with a plural verb i.e. have.2. Verb tenses must agree and they must reflect the correct sequence of events. For thisCheck the tense of all verbs.Check that the sequence of events is clear.3. Ensure parallelism i.e. items in pairs or series must agree. Check for the list of items or series of events, expressionslike both A and B, either A and B, prefer A to Betc.Eg:Ram likes cooking, reading and housework. (Incorrect)Ram likes cooking, reading and doing housework (correct).4. Modifiers: Make sure the modifier is as close as possible to the word or clause that it modifies.Misplaced or Dangling modifiers can alter the intended meaning drastically.Eg : </li> <li> 3. Training materials31) Sprinkled with Pepper, the Chef gently rolled the dough.(Incorrect)The chef gently rolled the dough, sprinkled with pepper.(Correct)2) I saw a trailer, peeping through the window. (Incorrect)Peeping through the window, I saw a trailer. (Correct)5. Sentences where the subject is separated from the verb by words such as along with, as well as, besides ornot, ignore these expressions when determining whether to use a singular or plural verb.Eg : The soldiers along with the captain, was shot dead by the terrorist.(Incorrect)The soldiers along with the captain were shot dead by the terrorist.(Correct)Here the subject is soldiers &amp; not Captain, so we should use plural verb &amp; not singular verb.6. Subjects joined by either/or, neither/nor, not only/but also.Eg : Either my aunt or my uncles is coming tomorrow.(Incorrect)Either my aunt or my uncles are coming tomorrow. (Correct)Here we apply the rule of nearness to determine which subject is closer to the verb. Always check thesingularity/plurality of the subject closer to or/nor/but also.7. Collective nouns: A collective noun is a word used to define a group of subjects. They are generally singular.The class are listening to the trainer.(Incorrect)The class is listening to the trainer. (Correct)8. Make certain that adjectives and adverbs are used correctly. Adjectives describe nouns while adverbs describe verbs&amp; adjectives.1) Last night, Qasim played the guitar good. (Incorrect)Last night, Qasim played the guitar well. (Correct)2) Aruna is the most smarter among all her siblings. (Incorrect) ( Superlative degree)Aruna is the smartest among all her siblings. (Correct)3) Roys height is more than Rekha. (Incorrect) (Comparative Degree)Roys height is more than of Rekha. (Correct)9. Question Tags.The question tag in English is a phrase added to the main part of the sentence, inviting the listener to confirm orgive an opinion about the comment. It consists of two parts: Auxiliary Verb + Pronoun, determined by the subject.Eg:1) The guests are arriving tomorrow, arent they?2) Subash will be coming home today, wont he?3) Im not disturbing you, am I?10. Some subjects seem plural, but in certain kind of sentences are really singular.Eg:1. Thousand rupees is a lot of money. </li> <li> 4. Training materials42. Hundred Litres of milk is more than sufficient for the marriage.These are some of the most commonly asked questions in sentence correction questions. We have two more in Articles&amp; Prepositions which will come in handy for sentence completion questions.-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------SENTENCE COMPLETIONSentence completion questions are varied based on the following topics;a) To test you vocabulary One word substitutesb) Fill in the blanks with suitable words.c) Fill in the blanks with Suitable prepositions or articles.d) Ordering of Sentences.The first two categories depend on the Vocabulary of the student;a) One word substitute: is basically a one word substitution for a sentence. The student needs to update himself withthe most frequently asked questions on this section.Eg :1. One who is out to subvert a government Anarchist2. One who is recovering from illness Convalescentb) Fill in the blanks with suitable sentences.In this section, a sentence would be given with choice of words, you need to select the appropriate word with respect tothe given sentence, and this is where applying the method of Contextual meaning comes handy. Fill in the blanks withmost common word which you know &amp; try to look for the word which has the same meaning.Eg ;1) While the concept of social distance applies __________ to human relationships, the __________Of closeness and distance varies between cultures.a) Unequivocally, Materialization.b) Unambiguously, Degreec) Unconditionally, extentd) Irrationally, magnitudeThe correct answer is Option b) Unambiguously means certainly &amp; degree means the extent/deepness, unless and untilwe know the meaning of ambiguous, we wont be able to solve the question correctly, but we have a chance if we try, sofill in the blank we can use clear, clearly, certainly etc in the first blank &amp; then we need to search the proximity of ourword with the given words.We cannot use Unconditional to human relationships &amp; hence we can exclude that option &amp; equivocally means thesame Clearly, but Materialization doesnt fit in there, hence we can decide the option early. But you need to practice acouple of times before you become an expert.Now lets look into Prepositions &amp; articles!!Articles: A, An, The. These are the three articles which we have in English language, but they are more than enough tocause the required damage &amp; thats why they form an integral part of all the question papers. So its good to know thegame. </li> <li> 5. Training materials5A: is used for introducing a noun or a pronoun, but never used to introduce a collective noun.Eg: A man, A boy, A bicycle etc, mostly A is used for introducing words starting with Consonants( all the alphabetsexcept the vowels A,E,I,O,U).An: The article An is used for introducing words starting with vowels.Eg: An Apple, An umbrella, An orange.But there are exceptions. The use of A &amp; An is not decided by the alphabets, but their pronunciation,for Eg;We dont say An University, but we say A University or The University.1) Sagar graduated from the University of Madras.2) Sagar graduated from a University in South Asia.The:It is one of the most commonly used articles/word in the English language. Its known for its rule: specific!! Thats theword which describes the role of article the it is used for mentioning, expressing, starting a topic, but to the point orspecific. We can take the above example of university. Look at the first one, there we are talking specifically about theUniversity of Madras &amp; hence we use the insteadof A. Similarly while discussing about universal Truths, Unique things in the world like The TajMahal,The united States of America etc we should only use The.PrepositionsPreposition is a word which is used before a noun, a noun phrase or a pronoun connecting it to another word.Eg: at, in on, of, to etc.In, IntoIn shows the position of rest of an object whereas Into shows an object in motion.Eg; The table is in the room.The ball fell into the well.In, atHere In shows a large area of time or place, while at refers to small area or fixed point of time &amp; space.Eg; I stay in Tamilnadu at Coimbatore.I stay in Chennai at Nungambakam.On, UponOn refers to the state of rest or stationary position, while upon refers to the state of motion.Eg; The book was found lying on the table.The Cat jumped upon the wall.Between, AmongBetween is used for two persons, things or ideas, while among is used for more than two persons.Eg; 1. The property was divided between the two brothers.2. The property was divided among the five brothers.But Between is also used for more than two persons when we are expressing the mutual bond/relation between them.Eg : The treaty was signed between the five nations.Our Choice is between the four brothers.Under, BeneathThe usage of under &amp; beneath depends upon the distance. </li> <li> 6. Training materials6Eg; The shoal of fish was found swimming under the surface of the sea. (incorrect)The shoal of fish was found swimming beneath the surface of the ocean. (correct)The shipwreck of titanic was found under the surface of the Atlantic Ocean.Ordering of Sentences.It is also known as Paragraph sequencing, Jumbled sentences. Basically we need to identify the correct order a set ofsentences given, it can vary from 4 to a maximum of 7 sentences. This section is found in almost all competitiveexaminations &amp; the reason begin the tendency of the students to make mistakes is higher.In general, the purpose of a paragraph would be to express an idea, point or opinion. The procedure to be followed is tofind;1. Beginning - Introduction.2. Middle - Main Theme or the topic of discussion.3. End - The discussion ends, making the point clear or explaining it further by transitional sentences.How to Solve.Identify what or whom they are discussing about. (find out the nouns, pronouns)Relate to all the sentences, got through them &amp; then try to find the introducing sentence,where they have mentioned the noun for the first time;Now once the starting sentence has been identified, using the pronouns try to find theconnecting sentence. For finding the connecting sentence we can also try to locate theconjunctions ( eg: and , but , even though, so).Now we need find the Concluding sentence, for that we need to identify the concluding words.Eg; Finally, Hence, Thence, Henceforth, Ultimately etc. Once we find the concluders, we have the startingsentence, the connecting sentence &amp; the concluding sentence; we have the flow of information. Now it will beeasier for us to find the rest of the sentences.Solved exampleA. But we all helped him in the first few days.B. Chandrapur is...</li></ul>