u.s. history 101 chapter 10 democracy in america

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U.S. History-Honors

U.S. History 101Chapter 10 Democracy in America Republican Virtues self-reliance, hard work, frugality, harmony, and sacrificing individual needs for the common good.US population1780 2.7 million1830 12 millionWhy? Average birthrate ~5 childrenEffects of a Mobile SocietyGreat opportunity to improve your lifeImproved social skills to deal with new people and settingsMarriageCourtship longer periods of getting to know potential spouseThe Triumph of DemocracyAfter the original 13 States, there was no requirement of owning property to vote.

non-freeholders

By 1829 only Virginia, NC, and RI had property requirementsPersonal independence necessary was the requirement to vote by 1860.Tocqueville on DemocracyAlexis de TocquevilleFrench writer wrote Democracy in America

1840 90% adult white men were eligible to vote

More then just the right to vote or particular set of political institutions

habit of the heartIndividual initiativeBelief in equalityActive public sphereVoluntary organization to improve society

Idea that sovereignty belongs to the mass of ordinary citizens

Founding Fathers sought to sheild political authority form excessive influence by ordinary people.

Voting Requirements in the Early 19th Century

Limits of DemocracyBy the 1830s Andrew Jacksons presidency The People ruled had become a universally accepted part of American politics

Prohibited women and non-whites

Information RevolutionMass-circulation penny press

New York Sun and New York Herald: introduced a new style of journalismSensationalismCrime storiesexpose-s of official misconductBy 1840U.S. 17 million popEurope 233 million pop

There was a larger circulation of newspapers in the U.S.The Pony Express

Delivered news and mail between St. Louis, MO and San Francisco, CA

Took 10 days

Replaced by the transcontinental telegraph line9Political Parties need newspapers supported their views

1820s and 1830sFreedoms JournalThe LiberatorCherokee PhoenixA Racial DemocracyWhite actors in blackfacePortraying African-Americans as stupid, dishonest, ridiculous

Jim Crow: created by Thomas D. Rice

Herman Melville Moby Dick and Benito Cereno

Portrayed complex, sometimes heroic black characters

Race and ClassNew York 1821 Removed property qualifications for white voters and raised requirement for blacks to $250.

1860, blacks could vote on the same basis as whites only in 5 NE StatesRevolutionary generation had thought of African-Americans as citizens of color potential members of the body politic

Race had replaces class as the boundary between those American men who were entitled to enjoy political freedom and those where were not.The American SystemFirst Bank of the United States ended in 1811: ended common currency

Second Bank of the United States 1816 charter for 20 yearsPrivate, profit-making corporationEnsuring paper money issued by local banks had real valueToday: only the federal government issues paper money determined by the Federal Reserve Bank

19th century currency was a promissory note back by gold.Acquisition of FloridaSeminole War of 1818Adams-Ons TreatyPinckney Treaty 1795Southern BoundariesU.S. Citizens free use of the Miss RiverSpain and U.S. agreed to control the Native population from attacking each other1810 Americans moved into eastern and western FloridaRebellions in South AmericaMarch 1818: General Jackson, promised the procession of Florida within 60 days

Burned Seminole villages, captured Spanish towns

Spain agreed to cede the territoryAcquisition of FloridaSeminole War of 1818Adams-Ons Treaty

Missouri Compromise 1820North Congressmen rejected Missouri entering as a slave state.Worried that another slave state would increase the power of the South in the Senate

11 Free 11 Slave

Southerners believed the Federal Government should no be allowed to decide.IF the Federal Government could forbid slavery in Missouri, they feared it could do so elsewhereHenry Clays dealSlavery would not be restricted in Missouri, Maine became a Free State, and balanced the Senate 12 to 12Congress agreed that as the U.S. expanded westward, territories north of 36 30 latitude in the Louisiana Purchase would be closed to slavery

Our policy, in regard to Europeis, not to interfere in the internal concerns of any of its powers; to consider the government de facto as the legitimate government for us; to cultivate friendly relations with it, and to preserve those relations by a frank, firm, and manly policy; meeting, in all instances, the just claims of every power; submitting to injuries from noneIt is impossible that the allied powers should extend their political system to any portion of either continent, without endangering our peace and happiness.

-President James MonroeDecember 2, 1823Monroe Doctrine

Monroe Doctrine 12/2/1823U.S. would not become involved In internal affaires of European countries, nor take sidesU.S. recognized the existing colonies and states in the Western Hemisphere and would not interfere with themThe U.S. would not permit any further colonization of the Western HemisphereAny attempt by European power to take control of any nation in the W.H. would be viewed as a hostile action towards the U.S.Elections of 1824Corrupt Bargain

Andrew Jackson won the most votes in the electoral college, but not the majority and the popular voteHouse of Representative voted to decide the lectionHenry Clay used his influence as speaker of the House to swing enough votes to John Quincy Adams to give him the victoryAdams made Secretary of StateAndrew Jackson

John Quincy AdamsFirst Picture ever taken of a President

John Quincy AdamsAlong with Sec. of State Henry Clay, promotes American System which saw govt promote economic development and pass protective tariffs encouraging business growth

Democratic (Jeffersonian) Republican Party splitsJacksonian DemocratsNational Republicans

1828 Andrew Jackson winsLargely due to relaxing voting laws (i.e. you no longer had to own land)

Henry ClayThe Great Compromiser

The Spoils System aka patronage Relied on his Kitchen CabinetVetoed more bills than all presidents before him.Nullification CrisisCongress passed the Tariff of 1828 heavily taxing importsHurt the South since it increased the cost of manufactured goods. Called it the Tariff of Abominations.South Carolina, led by VP and ex-Sen. John Calhoun declared states could nullify federal laws they viewed as unconstitutionalIn 1832, they nullified a new tariff and threatened to secedeJackson threatened to send in troops, but Henry Clay negotiated a compromise reducing the tariff and SC cancelled the nullificationVetoed a bill re-chartering the Second Bank of the United StatesMoved money to pet banks in the states. The lack of a plan to deal with national finances led to the Panics of 1837 and 1839.Age of Jackson

Andrew JacksonIndian Removal Act of 1830

Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw, and Seminole tribes forced of 100 million acres of fertile land

Gave Natives land in parts of the Louisiana Purchase in exchange fore their land Five Civilized Tribes

Forcibly moved to present day OK

100,000 people

Trail of Tears1838 15,000 Cherokees are forced to walk over 1,000 miles from GA to OK25% die.

Supreme Court Cases

Johnson v. MIntosh 1823Indians were not in fact owners of their land, but merely had right of occupancy

Cherokee Nation v. Georgia 1831Chief Justice John Marshall described Indians as wards of the federal government: deserved paternal regard and protection, but no citizenship