US and Canada Green City Index: Assessing the environmental performance of 27 major US and Canadian cities

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<ol><li> 1. US and Canada Green City IndexAssessing the environmental performance of 27 major US and Canadian citiesA research project conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit, sponsored by Siemens </li><li> 2. ContentsUS and Canada Green City Index004 The cities00016 Category findings021 Exemplar projects 028 Methodology060 Denver100 Philadelphia016 CO2021 Energy and CO20064 Detroit 104 Phoenix006 Expert advisory panel 017 Energy Los Angeles: A comprehensive032 City portraits 068 Houston 108 Pittsburgh017 Land use approach to renewables032 Atlanta072 Los Angeles 112 Sacramento008 Introduction018 Buildings022 Land use036 Boston 076 Miami 116 San Francisco018 TransportThe million-tree strategy in NYC040 Calgary080 Minneapolis 120 Seattle010 Results 019 Water023 Buildings 044 Charlotte084 Montreal124 St Louis019 WasteCommunity power works in048 Chicago088 New York City 128 Toronto012 Overall key findings019 AirSeattle 052 Cleveland092 Orlando 132 Vancouver020 Environmental governance 024 Transport 056 Dallas 096 Ottawa136 Washington DC Denver: From T-Rex to Fastracks an integrated mobility concept 025 Water Cutting water consumption in Calgary 026 Waste San Francisco recycling: Popular laws have dramatic effects2 3 </li><li> 3. CalgaryVancouver SeattleOttawa MontrealMinneapolisTorontoThe cities DetroitBoston ChicagoCleveland New York CityPittsburghPhiladelphiaUS and Canada Green City IndexDenver Washington DC Sacramento St LouisSan FranciscoThe US and Canada Green City Indexmeasures and rates the environmental CharlotteLos Angelesperformance of 27 cities in the US and AtlantaCanada. The cities were pickedPhoenix Dallasindependently rather than relying onrequests from city governments to beincluded, in order to enhance the Indexs Houstoncredibility and comparability. Orlando4Miami 5 </li><li> 4. Expert advisory panelUS and Canada Green City IndexA panel of globalexperts in urbanenvironmentalsustainability advisedthe EconomistIntelligence Unit indeveloping themethodology for theUS and CanadaDon Chen Gareth Doherty Andreas GeorgouliasMark Alan Hughes Rich Kassel Tom Wright Rae ZimmermanGreen City Index.Senior Program Officer Lecturer Co-founder and researcherDistinguished Senior FellowSenior Attorney Executive Director Professor of Planning and Ford FoundationHarvard University Zofnass Program for Sustain- University of Pennsylvania Air and Energy Program, Regional Plan AssociationPublic AdministrationThe EIU would like to Graduate School of Designable Infrastructure, Harvard School of Design Natural Resources Defense (RPA)New York Universitys UniversityCouncil (NRDC) Robert F. Wagner Graduatethank the members School of Public Serviceof the panel for their Since joining the Ford FoundationGareth Doherty currently teaches Andreas Georgoulias is a lecturerMark Alan Hughes is a distin-For two decades Rich Kassel has Tom Wright is the executiveProfessor Rae Zimmerman has in 2008 Don Chen has worked on landscape architecture, and urbanand a founding member of the guished senior fellow of the been a leading advocate for city, director of Regional Plandirected the Institute for Civiltime and valuablereforming the rules that shape planning and design at the Harvard Zofnass Program for SustainableTC Chan Center for Buildingstate and federal programs that Association and a visiting lecturerInfrastructure Systems at NYUsinsight. municipal and regional growth by University Graduate School ofInfrastructure at the HarvardSimulation and Energy Studies. have reduced pollution from USin public policy at PrincetonWagner School since 1998. pursuing integrated approaches toDesign (GSD). Together withUniversity Graduate School ofHe is also associate director forvehicles. In the 1990s his Dump University Woodrow Wilson School Her academic and professional affordable housing, public Mohsen Mostafavi he edited Design. His research focuses onPolicy, Markets and Behavior at theDirty Diesels Campaign broughtof Public and International Affairs. experience focuses on urban area transportation, land use and Ecological Urbanism, published bylarge-scale sustainable develop- US Department of Energys Energy greater public awareness to the He lectures widely on growth problems from the perspectives of community planning. His grantLars Mller Publishers in 2010.ments and infrastructures. Efficient Buildings Hub at the diesel pollution problem in USmanagement and regionalinfrastructure, sustainability, making at the Ford FoundationMr Doherty is also a founding editor Dr Georgoulias has worked in Philadelphia Navy Yard.cities. Through his work to develop planning, and supervised climate change, the environment, supports institutions working to of New Geographies, a journaldesign and constructionAdditionally, Mr Hughes is a faculty New York City Transits clean-fuelproduction of the Draft Vision Plannatural hazards and security. She reduce poverty and provide edited by doctoral candidates at management with Obermeyer, fellow of the Penn Institute for bus program, he helped create a for the City of Newark (2006), the has authored or co-authored over economic opportunities for low-Harvard GSD. He received a doctorHochtief and the US GeneralUrban Research, a senior fellow of model for low-emission transitNew Jersey State Development and 100 articles and book chapters in income people through equitableof design degree from HarvardService Administration, and in the Wharton Schools Initiative forfleets that has been replicated inRedevelopment Plan (2001), and these areas. She is a fellow of the development in US metropolitan University, and a masters of liberal infrastructure financing withGlobal Environmental Leadership, cities worldwide. Most recently, he A Region at Risk: The Third Regional American Association for the areas. Previously, Mr Chen was the arts and certificate in urban design HVB/UniCredit. Recently, he hasand a distinguished scholar in has worked closely with the Plan for the New YorkNewAdvancement of Science, and past founding executive director andfrom the University of Pennsylvania. been a consultant for new city residence at Penns Robert A. Foxadministration of New York MayorJerseyConnecticut Metropolitanpresident and fellow of the Society CEO of Smart Growth America, Mr Dohertys recent research has developments in Saudi Arabia and Leadership Program. Previously heMichael Bloomberg to develop andArea (1996). He has taught at thefor Risk Analysis. Her advisory where he led efforts to create the focused on paradoxes of green in Pakistan, and he conducts research served as chief policy adviser toimplement the transportation andColumbia University Graduate appointments have been with National Vacant Properties arid urban environments. on sustainable urban economics Philadelphia Mayor Michael Nutterair quality components of PlaNYCSchool of Architecture, Planning numerous agencies, including the Campaign and the Transportation for the Gulf Encyclopedia of and was the founding director of 2030, New York Citys sustainabili- and Preservation, the LincolnUS Environmental Protection for America Campaign. He was aSustainable Urbanism for Qatar sustainability for the city. ty plan.Institute of Land Policy, and theAgency, the National Research founding board co-chairman of the Foundation. New Jersey Institute of Technology Council and the National Science Environmental LeadershipSchool of Architecture.Foundation. Program, and served on the boards of West Harlem Environmental Action and Grist magazine.6 7 </li><li> 5. IntroductionUS and Canada Green City IndexA unique IndexThe 27 cities selected for the US and Canada Green City Index were chosen with aview to representing a number of the most populous metropolitan areas in the UnitedStates and Canada. The cities were picked independently rather than relying on re-US and Canadian cities: predicts it will decline another 14% in the nextor urban sprawl, but increasingly cities are also examines the key findings from the nine indi- quests from city governments to be included, in order to enhance the Indexs credi-laboratories for an urban futuretwo decades, even as the overall national popu- generating unique solutions to these chal-vidual categories in the Index: CO2, energy, land bility and comparability.lation rises. A similar trend is expected to emerge lenges through effective local policies.use, buildings, transport, water, waste, air andThe methodology, described in detail in a separate section in this report, has beenThe United States and Canada, already largely urban, are becoming ever more so.According to the United Nations Populationin Canada around 2020.Not surprisingly, the two countries cities play afundamental role in national life and help toThe US and Canada Green City Index, a researchproject conducted by the Economist Intelli-gence Unit, sponsored by Siemens, seeks toenvironmental governance. Third, the reportpresents a variety of leading best-practice ideasfrom across the US and Canada. Fourth, it givesdeveloped by the Economist Intelligence Unit in cooperation with Siemens. It relieson the expertise of both organizations, a panel of outside urbanization experts, andthe experience from producing the European Green City Index in 2009, as well asDivision, 82% of Americans and 81% of Canadi- perpetually redefine what it means to be Ameri- measure and assess the environmental perfor-a detailed description of the methodology usedthe Latin American Green City Index in 2010 and the Asian Green City Index inans lived in cities in 2010 and these proportions can or Canadian. Cities are cultural and intellec-mance of 27 major US and Canadian cities across to create the Index. Finally, an in-depth profile 2011. One of the great strengths of the US and Canada Green City Index is theare set to continue rising, reaching 90% for thetual centers. They drive economic activity. And a range of criteria. This report presents the key for each city outlines its particular strengths,breadth of information it uses. For every city 31 individual indicators are evaluated,US and 88% for Canada by 2050. This is not athey are the main recipients of new ideas fromfindings and highlights from the Index, and ischallenges and ongoing environmental initia-often based on multiple data points. Value also comes from how the Index is pre-new phenomenon. As early as 1955, two-thirdsimmigrants, the vast majority of whom settle in intended to provide stakeholders with a uniquetives. These profiles rightly constitute the bulk sented: each city is assessed in nine categories and ranked against the others to in-of the populations of both countries lived in cities when they arrive. Cities are ideal laborato- tool to help cities in the region learn from each of the report because the aim of the study is todicate its relative position. The process is transparent, consistent and replicable, andcities. Urbanization, though, has now reached a ries for innovative responses to their countries other in order to better address the common share valuable experience.is designed to reveal sources of best practice.stage where rural America has begun to shrink.challenges, including environmental issues. It is environmental challenges they face.In absolute terms, the rural US populationwell known that city life can exacerbate prob-The report is divided into five parts. First, itdropped by 12% in the last 20 years and the UNlems such as harmful greenhouse gas emissions examines the overall key findings. Second, it89 </li><li> 6. ResultsUS and Canada Green City Index Overall CO2Energy Land useBuildingsTransportWaterWasteAir Environmental governance CityScoreCityScore City ScoreCityScore CityScore City ScoreCityScoreCityScoreCityScoreCity Score 1 San Francisco83.81 Vancouver91.41 Denver 86.01 New York City93.0 1 Seattle98.21 New York City76.61 Calgary94.11 San Francisco 100.01 Vancouver95.1 = 1 Denver100.0 2 Vancouver81.32 Miami90.12 Boston 82.42 Minneapolis80.1 2 San Francisco85.62 San Francisco67.02 Boston 91.82 Seattle83.12 San Francisco91.9 = 1 New York City 100.0 3 New York City79.23 New York City89.43 San Francisco81.13 Ottawa 75.0 3 Washington DC79.33 Vancouver66.63 New York City88.83 Los Angeles81.93 New York City89.2 = 1 Washington DC 100.0 4 Seattle79.14 Los Angeles86.54 Vancouver80.14 Boston 74.9 4 Pittsburgh 78.54 Montreal 65.34 Minneapolis88.24 Toronto78.64 Sacramento 89.14 Seattle 96.7 5 Denver 73.55 Ottawa 86.0 = 5 Los Angeles 77.85 Vancouver74.1 5 Vancouver77.25 Ottawa 65.15 San Francisco87.45 Minneapolis72.65 Los Angeles88.7 = 5 Houston94.4 6 Boston 72.66 Seattle84.7 = 5 Toronto 77.86 Washington DC69.9 6 Denver 68.86 Chicago64.76 Vancouver86.66 Sacramento 72.26 Philadelphia 82.9 = 5 Los Angeles94.4 7 Los Angeles72.57 Toronto81.67 Minneapolis76.57 Philadelphia 67.7 7 New York City68.77 Minneapolis63.97 Denver 85.67 Vancouver69.07 Seattle80.5 = 5 Philadelphia 94.4 8 Washington DC71.48 San Francisco81.18 Chicago75.98 San Francisco66.6 8 Atlanta66.78 Denver 60.78 Ottawa 84.98 Ottawa 66.28 Montreal 79.5 = 8 Minneapolis93.3 9 Toronto68.49 Washington DC80.89 Phoenix72.99 Charlotte64.6 9 Houston66.49 Seattle59.89 Charlotte84.89 Montreal 63.79 Toronto79.2 = 8 San Francisco93.3 10 Minneapolis 67.7 10 Montreal 80.1 10 Philadelphia 72.5 10 Miami59.210 Boston 62.110 Sacramento56.0 10 Toronto83.5 10 Houston59.5 10 Denver 79.010 Vancouver91.1 11 Chicago 66.9 11 Boston 79.0 11 Houston71.0 11 Calgary57.811 Calgary56.011 Dallas54.4 11 Seattle83.3 11 Calgary58.8 11 Washington DC78.911 Charlotte88.9 12 Ottawa66.8 12 Philadelphia 78.4 12 Seattle69.8 12 Montreal 57.712 Los Angeles53.512 Houston 53.6 12 Chicago82.2 12 Orlando58.0 12 Atlanta78.2 = 12 Atlanta 87.8 13 Philadelphia66.7 13 Dallas 77.5 13 Washington DC69.4 13 Houston56.813 Toronto53.413 Washington DC 52.0 13 Los Angeles81.7 13 Philadelphia 57.6 13 Ottawa 76.7 = 12 Chicago 87.8 14 Calgary 64.8 14 Denver 76.0 14 Cleveland68.0 14 Seattle56.214 Chicago51.3 = 14 Miami51.2 14 Orlando81.0 14 Chicago55.2 14 Boston 74.314 Pittsburgh 85.6 15 Sacramento63.7 15 Calgary75.4 15 Pittsburgh 67.6 15 Chicago56.015 Dallas 49.6 = 14 Pittsburgh 51.2 15 Houston80.5 15 Boston 54.7 15 Chicago70.315 Boston 84.4 16 Houston 62.6 16 Sacramento 67.6 16 Dallas 65.8 16 Orlando54.516 Orlando42.316 Calgary 50.8 16 Dallas 78.7 16 New York City53.1 16 Charlotte69.5 = 16 Dallas82.2 17 Dallas62.3 17 Phoenix66.3 17 Orlando64.2 17 Toronto54.317 Sacramento 41.717 Boston50.2 17 Miami78.2 17 Denver 51.9 17 Dallas 67.4 = 16 Orlando 82.2 18 Orlando 61.1 18 Charlotte59.8 18 Calgary62.5 18 Denver 53.318 Minneapolis37.018 Orlando 49.4 18 Phoenix77.4 18 Washington DC44.8 18 Orlando66.4 = 18 Calgary 76.7 19 Montreal59.8 19 Chicago58.5 19 Miami61.5 19 Pittsburgh 50.719 Montreal 36.419 Cleveland 47.9 19 St Louis 77.0 19 Dallas 41.8 19 Phoenix65.2 = 18 Sacramento76.7 20 Charlotte 59.0 20 Atlanta57.0 20 Ottawa 56.9 20 Phoenix49.620 St Louis 33.820 Atlanta 47.6 20 Sacramento 76.3 20 Charlotte40.9 20 Cleveland60.020 Montreal 74.4 21 Atlanta 57.8 21 Orlando52.2 21 Charlotte55.7 21 Los An...</li></ol>

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