unit 6 grammar compulsory reference material - perfect modals - advisabilty in the past

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  • Advisability in the Past

    Home Alone


    Focus on Grammar 4Part VII, Unit 16By Ruth Luman, Gabriele Steiner, and BJ WellsCopyright 2006. Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved.

  • Home Alone 1Home Alone 1

    Joe and Amy have been married less than a year.

    Last month, Amys mother hadan operation. . .

    . . .so Amy went back to her hometown to take care of her.

    When Amy returned, the house wasa mess!

  • Home Alone 2Home Alone 2

    You shouldnt have gone away.You could have stayed at home.You should have taken care of me,not left me on my own.

    You could have paid the phone bill.You ought to have fed the cat!You might have taken out the trash.Whats so hard about that?

  • Home Alone 3Home Alone 3

    Youve made it very clear.I really need a maid.Go back to your mothers, dear.Thats where you should have stayed.

    You should have done the laundry.You might have washed the car!At least you could have mowed the lawn.SPOILED! Is what you are!

  • Modals of AdvisabilityModals of Advisability

    Use modals to talk about actions and states that were advisable in the past, but did not happen.

    should haveought to havecould havemight have

    You should have done the laundry.

    + past participle

  • ContractionsContractions

    Use contractions in informal writing and speaking.

    Joe could have mowed the lawn.

    He might have washed the car.

    You should not have gone away.

    Joe couldve

    He mightve

    You shouldnt

  • Negative StatementsNegative Statements

    Use should not have and ought not to have for negative statements.

    You shouldnt have goneshouldnt have gone away.

    Amy ought not to haveought not to have left.

  • Practice 1Practice 1

    Robbery at 1301 Maple Street, June 7, 2005. Estimated loss: Substantial. No forced entry. No alarm. Door opened with key found under welcome mat. Neighbors report empty garbage cans at curb for several days. Lawn overgrown. Newspapers piled up on front steps. Curtains open and electronic equipment visible from street. Car unlocked.

    Read the police report about a robbery. Discuss what this family should or shouldnt have done.

    Example: They shouldnt have put a key under the mat. Thats the obvious place to look.

  • QuestionsQuestionsShould have is the most common form used in questions.

    Should Amy have stayed

    at home?

    Should Joe have done

    the laundry?

  • Short AnswersShort AnswersUse the modal and have to make short answers.

    Should Amy have stayed

    at home?

    Should Joe have done

    the laundry?

    Yes, she should have.

    No, he shouldnt


  • Joe might of taken out the trash.

    Pronunciation 1Pronunciation 1In informal speech, have in modal phrases is often pronounced like the word of.

    Do not write of instead of have.

    Joe might have taken out the trash.

  • Joe ought toought to have fed the cat.

    Pronunciation 2Pronunciation 2In informal speech, to in ought to is pronounced like the word a.

    He ought toought to have trimmed the hedge.

  • Practice 2Practice 2Here are some problems you faced yesterday morning. What should you have done?

    Example: You overslept and were late to work.

    I ought to have set the alarm.

    I might have gone to bed earlier.

    I shouldnt have gone to that party!

    1. According to the scale, you gained five pounds.

    4. You couldnt find the car keys.

    3. There was no hot water.

    5. You forgot to feed the dog.

    2. You had no clean socks.

  • ReferencesReferences

    Copyright 2006 Pearson Education and its licensors. All rights reserved.

    Advisability in the PastHome Alone 1Home Alone 2Home Alone 3Modals of AdvisabilityContractionsNegative StatementsPractice 1QuestionsShort AnswersPronunciation 1Pronunciation 2Practice 2References