uic nutrition 101 designing a healthful diet uic wellness center_2012

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  • 1. Presentation compiled and designed byAshley L. Arnold, MBA, MPH Candidate

2. Basic Nutrition Basic Physical Activity 3. Q:What happens when we go toolong with out eating? A: Fatigue, irritability, shakiness Why: Red blood cells, brain andnervous system rely on glucose (evenduring rest). 4. The same amount of energy IN andenergy OUT over time = weight staysthe same (energy balance) More energy IN than OUT over time= weight gain Less energy IN than OUT over time =weight loss Energy Calories 5. To calculate caloric intake: Yourweight x 15 6. Ifyou are overweight or obese, reducedaily caloric intake by 500 for a weightloss goal of 1 lb per week or 150 for aweight loss goal of 1 lb per month. Increase physical activity = burn 500more calories Decrease caloric intake from food =eat 500 fewer calories National Heart Lung and Blood Instituteprovides further information 7. Ifyou are underweight, increasecaloric intake by 500. Increase caloric intake from food. Evaluate your physical activity leveland consider a reduction. 8. CHOOSE OFTEN: Fruits (about 60 calories per serving) Low-starch vegetables (about 25calories per serving) Very lean protein (about 35 caloriesper serving) Lean protein (about 55 calories perserving) Dairy products (about 90 calories perserving) Reduced-calorie fats (about 25 calories per serving) 9. CHOOSEWITH CAUTION (WATCH THOSE PORTIONS): High-starch vegetables (about 80calories per serving) Pasta/rice, cooked (about 80calories per serving) Breads/cereals/crackers (about 80calories per serving) 10. DailyIntake Guidelines: Carbohydrates 130g or 45-65% of total daily energy intake Added sugars 25% or less Protein 0.8-1.7 kg per lb. of body weight or 10-35% of total daily energy intake Fats 71-100g or 20-25% of total daily intake 11. Primary energy sourcesare carbohydrates and fat 12. Its in the hand 1 cup = fist Best for beverages, cereal, casseroles, soups, fresh fruit,and salads cup = cupped hand Best for pasta, rice, beans, potatoes, cooked vegetables,pudding and ice cream 3 ounces = palm Best for beef, pork, poultry and fish 1 tablespoon = thumb Best for salad dressing, peanut butter, sour cream andcream cheese 1 teaspoon = thumb tip Best for butter, margarine, mayonnaise and oil 13. DESCRIPTION: Simple & Complex Carbohydrates Refers to molecules of sugar present BENEFIT: Consuming carbohydrates that arehigh in fiber and other nutrients reduces riskfor chronic diseases; obesity, heart disease,diabetes GOOD SOURCES: fiber rich fruits,vegetables, whole grains 14. ENERGY the body relies primarily oncarbohydrates and fat for energy EXERCISE light HYDRATION when body burns alternateenergy, including stored fats, it dehydratesthe body If prolonged, acid increases in blood damagesbody tissue and can cause coma or death CELL FUNCTIONS similar to process above, when body turns to alternate energy sources, it takes away from essential cell functioning 15. Helpsdigestion Contributes to prevention of digestive andother chronic diseases; heart disease, type 2diabetes May enhance weight loss Daily recommendation: 25+ grams for women 38+ grams for men GOODSOURCES: whole grains, legumes, leafy greens, fresh or frozen fruits 16. DESCRIPTION large, complex moleculesfound in the cells of living things BENEFIT Primary responsibility is to recycle amino acids Critical components of all the tissues of the human body, including bones, blood, and skin Function in metabolism, immunity, fluid balance, and nutrient transport Can provide energy in certain circumstances GOODSOURCES nuts & seeds, legumes, certain vegetables; spinach, broccoli, soy beans 17. CELL GROWTH & MAINTENANCE ACT AS ENZYMES & HORMONES speed upchemical reactions, chemical messages(hormones) FLUID MAINTENANCE & ELECTROLYTE BALANCE proteins attract fluids ACID-BASE BALANCE/MAINTENANCE STRONG IMMUNE SYSTEM antibodies (specialproteins) ENERGY we need to consume enough protein toperform required work with out using up theprotein that already play an active role in ourbodies 18. DESCRIPTION a form of a lipid, insoluble inwater Triglyceride (most common in our food) includesfatty acids Saturated fatty acid (more hydrogen bonds) Monounsaturated fatty acid liquid at roomtemperature, but not always; olive oil, cashew nuts Polyunsaturated fatty acid usually liquid at roomtemperature also; canola, safflower and corn oil Essential fatty acids (such as omegas) essential forbody functioning, but the body cannot make them,therefore, consumption of essential fatty acids isimportant 19. BENEFIT provide energy Twice as much energy per gram as a carbohydrate or protein Major source of energy while body is at rest GOODSOURCES flax seed or flax seed oil,salmon or other fish, walnuts, avocado OTHER INFORMATION Oils generally placed in this category (liquid lipids). Animal fat 40-60% of energy from saturated fat Plant foods 80-90% of energy from monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats 20. PROVIDE ENERGY AT REST - 30-70% of the energy usedat rest by the muscles and organs comes from fatsources. FUEL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY one of the best ways tolose fat is to exercise BODY FAT STORES Energy at later use rest, exercise or during low energyintake Protection of major organs ENABLE THE TRANSPORT OF FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS essential for many metabolic functions HELP MAINTAIN CELL FUNCTION maintain cellmembrane integrity, regulate substances thattransport in and out of the cell(s) or that bind tothem HELP US FEEL FULL 21. KEY TERMS: Physical activity - any movement produced by muscles that increases energy expenditure. Exercise is a sub-category of physical activity that refers to purposeful, planned and structured physical activity. ***Physical fitness interaction between nutrition and physical activity. BENEFITS: Reduces risk for heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure Reduces risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer 22. BMI:Primary indicator of weight status To calculate: Take your weight (in pounds) and multiply it by703 Take your height (in inches) and square it Divide #1 by #2: Weight x 703/ height x height 23. BMI ClassificationBelow 18.5Underweight18.5 24.9 Healthy25.0 29.9 Overweight30.0 34.9 Moderate Obesity (classI)35.0 39.9 Moderate Obesity (classII)40 or above Severe Obesity 24. Light Exercise, such as walking Carbohydrates 12.5% Fat 87.5%Moderate Exercise, such as riding a bike non-competitivelyCarbohydrates45%Fat 55%Intense Activity, such as swimming Carbohydrates 67% Fat 33% 25. 10 km race (32-40 min) 40% fat, 60%carbohydrates Marathon (2.5-3 hours) 20% fat, 75%carbohydrates, 5% other Day-long hike (5.5-7 hours) 65% fat, 35%carbohydrates 1 MILE = 100 CALORIES 26. REFERENCE LIST:Better Homes and Gardens Network Site by Meredith Corporation. (2009). HeartHealthy Living. Retrieved on August 13, 2012 fromhttp://www.hearthealthyonline.com/fitness/weight-loss/hand-guide-portion-control_ss7.html.Eat Right: Food, Nutrition and Health Tips from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics(formerly American Dietetic Association). (2011). Retrieved fromhttp://www.eatright.org/nutritiontipsheets/.Fernstrom, M.H. (2005). Runners World: The Runners Diet. United States of America:Rodale, Inc (registered trademark for Runners World), 49-73.Thompson, J. & Manore, M. (2012). Nutrition An Applied Approach, 3rd edition. SanFrancisco, CA: Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 106-215, 410-441.National Institutes of Health and U.S. Department of Health and Human ServicesNational Heart Lung and Blood Institute. (n.d.). Aim for a Healthy Weight. Retrievedon August 10, 2012 fromhttp://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/obesity/lose_wt/index.htm.Nutrimorphosis. (2012). Portion Control Tips & Tricks. Retrieved fromhttp://nutrimorphosis.com/tag/portion-control/.U.S. Department of Agriculture. Choosemyplate.gov. (2012). Retrieved fromhttp://www.choosemyplate.gov/. 27. RESOURCES:American Diabetes Association www.diabetes.orgAmerican Dietetic Association www.eatright.org orwww.webdieticians.orgCenters for Disease Control and Prevention www.cdc.govHeart Association www.americanheart.orgInternational Food Information Council Foundation (IFIC) www.ific.orgJournal of American Dietetic Association www.adajournal.orgNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestion and Kidney Disease(NIDDK) www.niddk.nih.govNational Heart Lung and Blood Institute -http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Healthy People2020 www.healthypeople.govFood logging -www.choosemyplate.gov/SuperTracker/default.aspx, www.livestrong.com/thedailtyplate, or www.fitday.com