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TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai Typography and Graphic Design Eric Miller Graphic Design Guide

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Typography and Graphic Design Eric Miller Graphic Design Guide. Typography is crucial to almost all design projects. It is important to understand basic typography terms, how to use it effectively and how to find and identify the best fonts for a project. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Typography is crucial to almost all design projects. It is important to understand basic typography terms, how to use it effectively and how to find and identify the best fonts for a project. TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Typography and Graphic Design
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Typography is crucial to almost all design projects. It is important to understand basic typography terms, how to use it effectively and how to find and identify the best fonts for a project.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Type Families
The different options available within a typeface, such as roman, bold and italic, make up a type family.
Times New Roman and Helvetica are examples of type families. These families are extremely useful because a designer can use just one or two within a project, but still have a wide variety of styles to choose from.
This helps to achieve a consistent design.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Letter Anatomy
There is a standard set of terms to describe the parts of a character.
These terms, and the parts of the letter they represent, are often referred to as "letter anatomy" or "typeface anatomy."
By breaking down letters into parts, a designer can better understand how type is created and altered and how to use it effectively.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Basic Typography Terminology
Typeface
A typeface refers to a group of characters, such as letters, numbers, and punctuation, that share a common design or style. Times New Roman, Arial, Helvetica and Courier are all typefaces.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Font
Fonts refer to the means by which typefaces are displayed or presented. Helvetica in movable type is a font, as is a TrueType font file.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Type Families
The different options available within a font make up a type family. Many fonts are at a minimum available in roman, bold and italic.
Other families are much larger, such as Helvetica Neue, which is available in options such Condensed Bold, Condensed Black, UltraLight, UltraLight Italic, Light, Light Italic, Regular, etc.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Serif Fonts
Serif fonts are recognizable by the small lines at the ends of the various strokes of a character.
As these lines make a typeface easier to read by guiding the eye from letter to letter and word to word, serif fonts are often used for large blocks of text, such as in a book.
Times New Roman is an example of a common serif font.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Sans Serif Fonts
Serifs are small lines at the ends of character strokes.
Sans serif, or without serif, refers to typefaces without these lines.
Sans serif fonts are often used when a large typeface is necessary, such as in a magazine headline.
Helvetica is a popular sans serif typeface.
Sans serif fonts are also common for website text, as they can be easier to read on screen.
Arial is a sans serif typeface that was designed specifically for on-screen use.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Point
The point is used to measure the size of a font. One point is equal to 1/72 of an inch.
When a character is referred to as 12pt, the full height of the text block (such as a block of movable type), and not just the character itself, is being described.
Because of this, two typefaces at the same point size may appear as different sizes, based on the position of the character in the block and how much of the block the character fills.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Pica
The pica is generally used to measure lines of text. One pica is equal to 12 points, and six picas are equal to one inch.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Baseline
The baseline is the invisible line on which characters sit. While the baseline may differ from typeface to typeface, it is consistent within a typeface. Rounded letters such as "e" will extend slightly below the baseline.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
X-height
The x-height is the distance between the meanline and the baseline. It is referred to as the x-height because it is the height of a lowercase "x." This height can vary greatly between typefaces.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Meanline
The meanline falls at the top of many lowercase letters such as "e," "g" and "y." It is also at the curve of letters like "h."
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Cap height
The cap height is the distance from the baseline to the top of uppercase letters like "H" and "J."
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Ascender
The part of a character that extends above the meanline is known as an ascender.
Note that this is the same as extending above the x-height.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Descender
The part of a character that extends below the baseline is known as a descender, such as the bottom stroke of a "y."
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Stem
The vertical line of a "B" and the primary diagonal line of a "V" are known as the stem. The stem is often the main "body" of a letter.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Bar
The horizontal lines of an "E" are known as bars. Bars are horizontal or diagonal lines of a letter, also known as arms, and are open on at least one side.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Bowl
An open or closed circular line that creates an interior space, such as in "e" and "b."
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Counter
Leg
The bottom stroke of a letter, such as the base of an "L" or diagonal stroke of a "K.“
Shoulder
The curve at the beginning of a leg of a character, such as in an "m."
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Type Families
The different options available within a typeface, such as roman, bold and italic, make up a type family.
Times New Roman and Helvetica are examples of type families.
These families are extremely useful because a designer can use just one or two within a project, but still have a wide variety of styles to choose from.
This helps to achieve a consistent design.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Roman
Roman is the standard style of a typeface, not altered by weight, width, angle or any other characteristic. This is often used for large blocks of text, such as the text of a book.
Italic
Italic type is at an angle, generally slanting to the right from bottom to top.
Italics are specifically designed within a typeface, meaning certain letters may be significantly different than the roman version to improve appearance and legibility.
Oblique type, on the other hand, is the roman type slanted at an angle, as-is. The two are often confused.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Bold
Bold, or boldface, type is a heavier weight than roman type. As there is no official standard for naming typeface style, bold is often referred to as black or medium, or other names depending on the weight and the preference of the typeface designer.
Light
Light type is thinner than the roman option. Depending on how light the type weight is, it will often be used at large sizes so it is legible, or to achieve a specific style. As with bold, there are light varieties such as ultralight.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Extended
Extended type is wider than the standard type of a family. It is useful for headlines and other large type areas, and provides even greater flexibility within a family.
Condensed
Condensed type is a narrower face, which can fit into small spaces. Like extended, it provides more style options while staying within the same family.
Combined Styles
Most type families will not just provide bold, italic, condensed, light, and so on, but combinations of each. This gives the designer even more options to work with. For example, Helvetica Neue is available in Regular, Italic, Bold, Bold Italic, Light, Light Italic, UltraLight, UltraLight Italic, Condensed Bold and Condensed Black. By using the options with a type family, and the combinations of each, designers can achieve a consistent layout while using a variety of styles.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Tracking, Kerning and Letterspacing
The distance between characters is controlled by tracking, kerning and letterspacing.
Tracking is adjusted to change the space between characters consistently across a block of text. This may be used to increase legibility for an entire magazine article.
Kerning is the reduction of space between characters, and letterspacing is the addition of space between characters.
These smaller, precise adjustments may be used to tweak a specific word, such as in a logo design, or a large headline of a story in a newspaper.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Leading
Leading refers to the distance between lines of text. This distance, measured in points, is measured from one baseline to the next. A block of text may be referred to as being 12pt with 6pts of extra leading, also known as 12/18. This means there is 12pt type on 18pts of total height (12 plus the 6pts of extra leading).
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
The elements of graphic design are used, and often combined, to create graphic works.
They should not be confused with principles of design, such as balance and white space, but rather components such as color, type and images.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Most commonly used elements
Shapes
From ancient pictographs to modern logos, shapes are at the root of design.
They are used to establish layouts, create patterns, and build countless elements on the page.
With graphics software such as Illustrator, creating and manipulating shapes is easier than ever, giving designers the freedom to create them at will.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Lines
Lines are used to divide space, direct the eye, and create forms.
At the most basic level, straight lines are found in layouts to separate content, such as in magazine, newspaper, and website designs.
This can of course go much further, with curved, dotted, and zigzag lines used as the defining elements on a page and as the basis for illustrations and graphics.
Often, lines will be implied, meaning other elements of design will follow the path of line, such as type on a curve.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Color
Color is an interesting element of graphic design because it can be applied to any other element, changing it dramatically.
It can be used to make an image stand out, to show linked text on a website, and to evoke emotion.
Graphic designers should combine their experience with color with an understanding of color theory.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Type
Type, of course, is all around us. In graphic design, the goal is to not to just place some text on a page, but rather to understand and use it effectively for communication.
Choice of fonts (typefaces), size, alignment, color, and spacing all come into play. Type can be taken further by using it to create shapes and images.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Art, Illustration & Photography
A powerful image can make or break a design. Photographs, illustrations and artwork are used to tell stories, support ideas, and grab the audience's attention.
So the selection is important.
Graphic designers can create this work on their own, commission an artist or photographer, or purchase it at all price levels on many websites.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Texture
Texture can refer to the actual surface of a design or to the visual appearance of a design.
In the first case, the audience can actually feel the texture, making it unique from the other elements of design.
Selection of paper and materials in package design can affect actual texture.
In the second case, texture is implied through the style of design.
Rich, layered graphics can create visual texture that mirrors actual texture.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Using Shapes in Graphic Design
Shapes are at the root of graphic design. They are figures and forms that make up logos, illustrations and countless other elements in all types of designs.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Using Shapes
Using shapes properly is one of the keys to successful graphic design.
The form, color, size and other characteristics for the shapes in a layout can determine its mood and message.
Soft, curved and rounded shapes are perceived differently than sharp, angled shapes.
The “white space” or negative space left between shapes will also significantly impact a design.
Experimentation and altering of shapes within a design can ultimately lead to the desired result.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Shape Creation in Modern Graphic Design
Current graphics software has transformed the way graphic designers can deal with shapes.
Adobe Illustrator is the most useful tool for shape creation and manipulation.
Simple shapes such as circles, squares and triangles can be created with a click and drag of the mouse.
Adjusting lines and curves using the tools in Illustrator and similar programs can create more complex shapes, of limitless dimensions.
Colors, patterns, opacity and other characteristics of shapes can easily be altered.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Colour in Graphic Design
HSV Color
The HSV color space is important to look at because it describes color based on three properties: Hue, Saturation and Value. As you edit these values, the full spectrum of colors can be created.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Hue is another word for color.
Red, blue, and yellow are the primary hues, and when combined in equal amounts they create the secondary hues orange, green and violet.
When primary and secondary hues that are adjacent on the color wheel are combined, you get the tertiary hues.
These colors are shown in the color wheel diagram. When you mix the primary colors in different amounts, you get a limitless number of colors.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Saturation is the intensity of a color (or hue). When you mix colors or add black to a color, saturation and intensity drops. If you add white, color becomes lighter, but not necessarily more intense. The image below demonstrates this; the first box is fully saturated, the second has black added and the third has white added.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
The lightness or darkness of a color is its value. Like saturation, adding black or white to a color affects value. Tints are colors with added white, and shades are colors with added black. The image above shows tints and shades of the hues of the color wheel.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Color Models: RGB
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
There are many models used to measure and describe color.
The RGB color model is based on the theory that all visible colors can be created using the primary additive colors red, green and blue.
These colors are known as primary additives because when combined in equal amounts they produce white.
When two or three of them are combined in different amounts, other colors are produced.
For example, combining red and green in equal amounts creates yellow, green and blue creates cyan, and red and blue creates magenta.
As you change the amount of red, green and blue you are presented with new colors. Additionally, when one of these primary additive colors is not present you get black.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
RGB Color in Graphic Design
The RGB model is so important to graphic design because it is used in computer monitors.
The screen you are reading this very article on is using additive colors to display images and text.
Therefore, when designing websites (and other on-screen projects such as presentations), the RGB model is used because the final product is viewed on a computer display.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Types of RGB Color Spaces
Within the RGB model are different color spaces, and the two most common are sRGB and Adobe RGB. When working in a graphics software program such as Adobe Photoshop or Illustrator, you can choose which setting to work in.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
sRGB: The sRGB space is best to use when designing for the web, as it is what most computer monitors use.
Adobe RGB: Because the Adobe RGB space contains a larger selection of colors that are not available in the sRGB space, it is best to use when designing for print.
It is also recommended for use with photos taken with professional digital cameras (as opposed to consumer-level), because high-end cameras often use the Adobe RGB space.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
The CMYK Colour Model
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
The CMYK color model is used in the printing process.
The RGB color model (made up of red, green and blue) is used in your computer monitor, and is what you will view your projects in while still on screen.
These colors, however, can only be viewed with natural or produced light, such as in the computer monitor, and not on a printed page.
This is where CMYK comes in.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
When two RGB colors are mixed equally they produce the colors of the CMYK model, known as subtractive primaries.
Green and blue creates cyan (C), red and blue creates magenta (M), and red and green creates yellow (Y). Black is added to the model because it cannot be created with the 3 subtractive primaries (when combined they create a dark brown). The K, or “key,” stands for black.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
CMYK in the Printing Process
The four-color printing process uses four printing plates; one for cyan, one for magenta, one for yellow and one for black.
When the colors are combined on paper (they are actually printed as small dots), the human eye sees the final image.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
CMYK in Graphic Design
Graphic designers have to deal with the issue of seeing their work on screen in RGB, although their final printed piece will be in CMYK.
Digital files should be converted to CMYK before sending to printers, unless otherwise specified.
Because of this issue, it is important to use “swatches” when designing if exact color matching is important.
Swatches provide a designer and client with a printed example of what a color will look like on paper.
A selected swatch color can then be chosen in Photoshop (or a similar program) to insure the desired results.
Even though the on-screen color won’t exactly match the swatch, you know what your final color will look like.
You can also get a “proof” from a printer, which is an example of your printed piece provided before the entire job is run.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Using Swatches to Insure Desired Color Results in Printing
When designing for print, a common issue that has to be dealt with is the difference between the color on your computer display and on paper.
Even if your monitor is calibrated correctly the match them as best as possible, your client’s will not be, and so a third “version” of the color comes into play.
If you then print proofs for your client on any printer other than the one that will be used for the final job (which is often the case), more colors join the mix that won’t match the final piece.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
To deal with this problem, you can use the “Pantone Matching System,” or PMS.
The PMS has an industry standard book of color swatches with reference numbers that you can give to the printer, who will then use ready-made inks that match these numbers to complete the job.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
The PMS Swatch Book
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
The PMS swatch books come in many versions, made for different papers such as coated and matte.
For this reason, it is important to talk to your printer first about what paper will be used, so you can refer to the proper book.
The books are available for purchase directly from Pantone as well as on Amazon, other web sites, and in art stores.
As the swatch book sets are expensive (especially the full reference library), you may want to start with the “Formula Guide” set, consisting of the coated, uncoated and matte swatch books, which are sufficient for most standard jobs. It is important to remember that books can “expire,” meaning they are no longer applicable to the current ink sets.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Applying the
Selected Colors
to Your Designs
Once you have selected PMS colors, what do you do with them?
You need to use the matching colors in your design projects.
You do this by selecting the appropriate swatch library, and colors, in your graphics software.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
In Photoshop: Open the swatches palette by clicking Window > Swatches. The standard swatch palette will be displayed. Click the small arrow on the top right of the swatches window, and you are presented with a long list of color libraries to choose from, include several Pantone collections. Select the set name that matches the swatch book you are using. Photoshop will ask you if you want to replace the current palette or add onto it (Append). Choose “OK” to replace the palette so you are only seeing your Pantone colors.
In Illustrator: The process is basically the same, except when you click the arrow to bring up the swatches list, you must first choose “Open Swatch Library” to see the full list of Pantone and other color libraries.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Once your Pantone swatches are displayed, you can see the reference numbers by rolling over each color swatch with your mouse. Now you can select the colors that you have already picked out in your books. This process might vary slightly depending on what version of Photoshop or Illustrator you are using. The swatch palettes are also available in most standard graphics software, so be sure to select the right palette for the job.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
The Graphic Design Process
When starting a new design project, there are steps of the graphic design process to follow that will help you to achieve the best results.
Rather than jump right into a graphics software program to try to create a final version, you can save yourself time and energy by first researching the topic, finalizing your content, starting with simple sketches and getting several rounds of approval on designs.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Gather Information
Before you can start a project you of course need to know what your client needs.
Gathering information is the first step of the graphic design process.
When approached for a new job, set up a meeting to discuss the scope of the work.
Be sure to gather as much information as possible.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Aside from the product your client needs (such as a logo or a website), ask questions such as:
Who is the audience?
What is the message?
What are the dimensions?
Is there a deadline for completion?
Can the client provide examples of design they like?
Is there an existing corporate brand that needs to be matched?
Take detailed notes, which you can use later for the next step of the design process.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Create an Outline
Using the information collected in your meeting you'll be able to develop an outline of the content and goal of the project, which you can present to your client for approval before proceeding.
Include all of the major sections and the content for each. Include the dimensions and technical specifications for print or web work as well.
Present this outline to your client, and ask for any changes.
Once this is finalized, you know you are in agreement on what the piece will include and can proceed to the next step of the graphic design process.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Design should be creative! Before moving on to the design itself take some time to think about creative solutions for the project.
Your goal should be to come up with something new and different that will separate them from the rest
Ways to get the creative juices flowing include:
Brainstorming : Get together with a group and throw out any and all ideas
Read a book : Something as small as a color or shape in a graphic design book could spark a completely original idea
Take a walk: Sometimes its best to get outside and watch the world...you never know what will spark your imagination
Draw: Even if you're not an "artist," doodle some ideas on a page
Once you have some ideas for the project it's time to start creating a structured layout.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Sketches and Wireframes
Before moving into a software program it is helpful to create some simple sketches of the layout of a piece.
This way, you can show your client some ideas without spending too much time on design.
Find out if you are headed in the right direction by providing quick sketches of logo concepts, line drawings of layouts showing where elements will be placed on the page or even a quick handmade version of a package design.
For web design, wireframes are a great way to start with your page layouts.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Design Multiple Versions
Now that you've done your research, finalized your content and gotten approval on some sketches you can move on to the actual design phases of the graphic design process.
While you may knock out the final design in one shot, it's usually a good idea to present your client with at least two versions of a design.
You can agree on how many unique versions are included in a job in your proposal. This gives the client some options and allows you to combine their favorite elements from each.
TIP: Be sure to keep even the versions or ideas that you choose NOT to present and that you might not even like at the time, as you never know when they'll come in handy.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Revisions
Be sure to let your client know that you encourage "mixing and matching" the designs you provide.
They may like the background color on one design and the font choices on another.
From their suggestions you can present a second round of design.
Don't be afraid to give your opinion on what looks best...after all, you're the designer!
After this second round, it isn't uncommon to have a couple more rounds of changes before reaching a final design.
TYPOgraphy and GRAPHIC Design Mangesh Karandikar, DCJ, University of Mumbai
Stick to the Steps
When following these steps, be sure to finish each one before moving on to the next.
If you conduct solid research, you know you can create an accurate outline.
With an accurate outline, you have the information necessary to sketch out some ideas.
With the approval of these ideas, you can move on to create the actual design, which once revised, will be your final piece.