tr tuệ nhn tạo tuệ nhn tạo (it4040) nguyễn nhật quang quangnn-fit@mail.hut.edu.vn...

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  • Tr Tu Nhn To(IT4040)(IT4040)

    Nguyn Nht Quang

    quangnn-fit@mail.hut.edu.vn

    Trng i hc Bch Khoa H NiVin Cng ngh thng tin v truyn thng

    Nm hc 2012-2013

  • Ni dung mn hc:Gii thiu v Tr tu nhn to

    nh nghaC tCc nn tngLch s tm ttCc thnh tu quan trng

    Tc t

    Gii quyt vn : Tm kim, Tha mn rng buc

    Logic v suy din

    Biu din tri thc

    Biu din tri thc khng chc chn

    Hc my

    Tr Tu Nhn To2

  • nh ngha v TTNT (1) g ( )Cc nh ngha (quan im) v TTNT c chia thnh 4 nhm:

    (1) Cc h thng suy ngh (thng minh) nh con ngi"The exciting new effort to make computers think ... machines with

    i d i th f ll d lit l " (H l d 1985)minds, in the full and literal sense." (Haugeland, 1985)"[The automation of] activities that we associate with human thinking, activities such as decision-making, problem solving, learning ..." (Bellman 1978)(Bellman, 1978)

    (2) Cc h thng suy ngh mt cch hp l"The study of mental faculties through the use of computational models." (Charniak and McDermott, 1985)"The study of the computations that make it possible to perceive, reason, and act." (Winston, 1992)

    Tr Tu Nhn To 3

  • nh ngha v TTNT (2) g ( )(3) Cc h thng hnh ng (thng minh) nh con ngi

    "The art of creating machines that perform functions that require"The art of creating machines that perform functions that require intelligence when performed by people." (Kurzweil, 1990)"The study of how to make computers do things at which, at the moment, people are better." (Rich and Knight, 1991)moment, people are better. (Rich and Knight, 1991)

    (4) Cc h thng hnh ng mt cch hp l"Computational Intelligence is the study of the design of intelligent agents." (Poole et al., 1998)"AI . . .is concerned with intelligent behavior in artifacts." (Nilsson, 1998)

    Tr Tu Nhn To 4

  • nh ngha v TTNT (3) g ( )Cc nh ngha (1) v (2) lin quan n cc qu trnh suy nghv suy dinv suy din

    Cc nh ngha (3) v (4) lin quan n cch hnh ng

    Cc nh ngha (1) v (3) nh gi mc thnh cng (sthng minh) theo tiu chun ca con ngi

    Cc nh ngha (2) v (4) nh gi mc thnh cng (sCc nh ngha (2) v (4) nh gi mc thnh cng (sthng minh) theo tiu chun ca s hp l

    Mt h thng hnh ng hp l, nu n lm cc vic ph hp ( ) i vi nhng g n (h thng) bit

    Tr Tu Nhn To 5

  • Hnh ng nh con ngi: Turing Test

    Turing (1950) My tnh ton v s thng minh":My tnh c th suy ngh c khng?" My tnh c th hnh ng mt cch thng minh c khng?"ng mt cch thng minh c khng?"Th nghim kim chng hnh ng thng minh: Imitation Game

    D on rng n nm 2000, my tnh s c 30% kh nng vt qua mt ngi khng c chuyn mn i vi mt bi kim tra (Turing test) trong 5 phtTuring (vo nm 1950) d on trc cc vn tranh lun quan trng trong TTNT trong vng 50 nm sauTuring xut cc thnh phn quan trng ca TTNT: tri thc, suy di hi hdin, hiu ngn ng, hc

    Tr Tu Nhn To 6

  • Suy ngh nh con ngi: Khoa hc nhn thc

    Cuc cch mng nhn thc nhng nm1960:Xem b no ngi nh mt cu trc x l thng ting gNghin cu v tm l nhn thc thay th cho cc nghin cu trc v hnh vi ng x

    Cn cc l thuyt khoa hc v cc hot ng bn trong ca bCn cc l thuyt khoa hc v cc hot ng bn trong ca b no ngi

    Lm th no xc nhn (kim chng)? Yu cu: ( g)1) D on v kim chng cc hot ng (hnh vi) ca ch th con

    ngi (hng tip cn top-down), hoc2) Nhn dng (xc nh) trc tip t cc d liu v h thn kinh ) g ( ) p

    (hng tip cn bottom-up)

    Hin nay, c 2 hng tip cn ny (Cognitive Science v Cognitive Neuroscience) c tch ri vi lnh vc TTNTCognitive Neuroscience) c tch ri vi lnh vc TTNT

    Tr Tu Nhn To 7

  • Suy ngh hp l: Cc lut suy ngh

    Chun ha (hoc quy tc ha), hn l m t

    Aristotle: Th no l cc qu trnh suy ngh / tranh lun ngAristotle: Th no l cc qu trnh suy ngh / tranh lun ng n?

    Mt s trng hc Hy Lp pht trin nhng dng logic: g y p p g g gk hiu v cc lut dn xut i vi cc qu trnh suy ngh

    Mi lin h trc tip, thng qua ton hc v trit hc, i vi khoa hc TTNT hin ikhoa hc TTNT hin i

    Cc vn :1. Khng phi tt c cc hnh vi (hnh ng) thng minh u g p ( g) g

    xut pht t cc cn nhc (suy ngh) logic2. Mc ch ca s suy ngh l g? Nhng suy ngh no m ti

    nn thc hin, trong s cc suy ngh m ti c th c? , g y g

    Tr Tu Nhn To 8

  • Hnh ng mt cch hp lHnh ng mt cch hp l: thc hin ng vic cn lmlm

    ng vic cn lm: l vic (hnh ng) gip cc i ha vic t c cc mc tiu, i vi cc thng tin hin c , g

    Khng nht thit lin quan n s suy ngh v d, phn x chp mt

    Tuy nhin, s suy ngh nn c xem l thuc vo h thng (nhm) cc hnh ng hp l

    S hp l cn phi tnh n c phc tp tnh tonNu chi ph v ti nguyn tnh ton v thi gian qu cao, th s khng c tnh thc t (khng p dng c trong thc t)

    Tr Tu Nhn To

    khng c tnh thc t (khng p dng c trong thc t)

    9

  • Cc tc t hp l (1)p ( )

    Mt tc t (agent) l mt thc th c kh nng nhn thc vMt tc t (agent) l mt thc th c kh nng nhn thc v hnh ng

    Mt cch khi qut, mt tc t c th c biu din bng q , gmt hm nh x: t qu trnh (lch s) nhn thc n hnh ng:

    f: P* A

    Tr Tu Nhn To

    f: P A

    10

  • Cc tc t hp l (2)p ( )

    i vi mt tp (lp) cc mi trng v nhim v, chng ta cn p ( p) g , gtm ra tc t (hoc mt lp cc tc t) c hiu sut tt nht

    Lu : Cc gii hn v tnh ton (ca my tnh) khng cho php t c s hp l hon ho (ti u)

    Mc tiu: Thit k chng trnh my tnh ti u i vi cc ti nguyn my tnh hin c

    Tr Tu Nhn To

    g y y

    11

  • Cc nn tng ca TTNT (1)g ( )Trit hc

    LogicLogicCc phng php suy dinCc c s (nn tng) ca vic hcNgn ngNgn ngS hp l

    Ton hcBiu din hnh thc v cc gii thut chng minhTnh tonBi ton (vn ) gii quyt c v khng gii quyt cBi ton (vn ) gii quyt c v khng gii quyt cBi ton (vn ) p dng c v khng p dng c ( phc tp tnh ton - thi gian gii quyt bi ton - l hm m)Xc sut

    Tr Tu Nhn To 12

  • Cc nn tng ca TTNT (2)g ( )Kinh t hc

    Hm li ch (tin ch)Hm li ch (tin ch)L thuyt ra quyt nh

    Khoa hc thn kinhNn tng (c s) t nhin ca cc hot ng tr c

    Tm l hcS thch nghiCc du hiu ca nhn thc v iu khin vn ngCc k thut thc nghim (vd: tm sinh l hc,)

    Tr Tu Nhn To 13

  • Cc nn tng ca TTNT (3)g ( )Cng ngh my tnh

    Xy dng cc my tnh c tc tnh ton nhanhXy dng cc my tnh c tc tnh ton nhanh

    L thuyt iu khinThit k cc h thng nhm cc i ha mt hm mc tiu no g

    Ngn ng hcBiu din tri thcNg php (ca mt ngn ng)

    Tr Tu Nhn To 14

  • Lch s tm tt ca TTNT (1) ( )1943: McCulloch & Pitts trnh by cng trnh nghin cu u tin v AI, xut m hnh cc n-ron nhn to 2 trng thi (on/off)

    1950: Khi nim v TTNT ln u tin c Turing cp trong bi bo "Computing Machinery and Intelligence"

    1956: Workshop u tin (din ra trong 2 thng) Dartmouth (M) bn v lnh vc TTNT, khi nim TTNT c tha nhn

    1952-1969: Cc thnh tu ban u trong TTNT

    1950s: Cc chng trnh TTNT u tinChng trnh chi c ca SamuelChng trnh chi c ca SamuelChng trnh l lun logic ca Newell & SimonChng trnh chng minh cc nh l hnh hc ca Gelernter

    Tr Tu Nhn To 15

  • Lch s tm tt ca TTNT (2) ( )1965: Robinson c gii thut hon chnh cho vic suy din logic

    1966 1973:1966-1973:Cc nh nghin cu v TTNT nhn ra kh khn v phc tp tnh tonGn nh l khng cn cc nghin cu v cc mng n-ron nhn to

    1969-1979: S hnh thnh v pht trin ban u ca cc h thng da trn tri thc

    1980: TTNT tr thnh mt ngnh cng nghip (cc h thng,1980: TTNT tr thnh mt ngnh cng nghip (cc h thng, chng trnh TTNT dng trong thng mi)

    1980-1988: S xut hin bng n ca cc h chuyn gia

    1986: Cc mng n-ron nhn to xut hin tr li, tr nn ph bin

    1987: TTNT tr thnh mt lnh vc khoa hc

    199 S hi h i h1995: S xut hin ca cc tc t thng minh

    Tr Tu Nhn To 16

  • Cc thnh tu quan trng trong TTNT (1)

    Lp k hoch v lp lch t ngNASA thit k c chng trnh lp k hoch t ng (gi l S t t c c g t p oc t g (g Remote Agent) iu khin vic xp lch cc hot ng ca tu v tr

    Chi cChi cDeep Blue (h thng my tnh ca IBM) nh bi kin tng c vua Th gii Garry Kasparov vo nm 1997

    iu khin t ngiu khin t ngMt xe ti nh c iu khin t ng bi h thng ALVINN (ca CMU) trong sut 98% ca khong thi gian i t Pittsburgh n San Diego (~2850 miles)

    Ngi myNgy nay, rt nhiu cuc phu thut trong y t s dng cc tr gip ngi my trong cc thao tc vi phu (microsurgery)gip ngi my trong cc thao tc vi phu (microsurgery)

    Tr Tu Nhn To 17

  • Cc thnh tu quan trng trong TTNT (2)

    Chun onCc chng trnh chun on y t da trn phn tch xc sut Cc c g t c u o y t da t p t c c sut c th thc hin mc tng ng cc bc s chuyn mn trong mt s lnh vc ca y t

    Lp k hoch hu cn cho qun iLp k hoch hu cn cho qun iTrong cuc chin tranh Vng Vnh nm 1991, cc lc lng ca qun i M trin khai s dng mt chng trnh lp k hoch v xp lch cho cng tc hu cn di chuyn 50.000 xe c, hng ha v qun lnhha, v qun lnh

    Hiu ngn ng v gii quyt vn Chng trnh my tnh PROVERB c th gii c cc bi ton h ( d l ) tt h kh hi ich (crossword puzzles) tt hn kh nng ca nhiu ngi

    Tr Tu Nhn To 18

  • Cc tranh lun v TTNT (1)Kh nng ca TTNT?

    Chi (hp l) mt vn bng bn?Chi (hp l) mt vn bng bn?Li xe t ng theo mt ng ni quanh co?Mua trc tuyn cc hng ha trong 1 tun cho mt hiu tp phm?Pht hi h i h t l th t t h i?Pht hin v chng minh mt l thuyt ton hc mi?Hi thoi c vi mt ngi trong 1 gi ng h?Thc hin t ng mt ca phu thut m phc tp?Dch trc tip (tc thi) gia hai th ting cho mt hi thoi?

    M t h th h ( h i) kh ?My tnh c th suy ngh (nh con ngi) c khng?

    Tr Tu Nhn To 19

  • Cc tranh lun v TTNT (2)Nu my tnh c th lm thay nhng vic ang c lm bi con ngi, th con ngi s cng t vic (tht nghip)Con ngi s c qu nhiu thi gian rnh ri (so vi qu t, nh hin nay)Con ngi cm thy mt cm gic s thng minh thng trCon ngi cm thy mt cm gic s thng minh thng tr (cao nht) ca hV my tnh lm thay (v can thip) vo nhiu vic hng ngy ca con ngi h s cm thy cc quyn ring t b xmca con ngi, h s cm thy cc quyn ring t b xm phmVic s dng nhiu h thng TTNT c th lm gim (mt i) trch nhim gii trnh trong cc cng victrch nhim gii trnh trong

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