The West and the Changing World Chapters 15, 16 and 17

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The West and the Changing World

The West and the Changing WorldChapters 15, 16 and 171200-1400 Middle East1200Dominated by 2 empires1. Byzantine Empire2. Islamic Caliphates (Abbasid)1400Mongols conquer AbbasidsEventually leads to rise of OttomanByzantine almost doneOttoman Turks conquer Constantinople (1453)

Shift in power by the 1400sMongol Empire falls (1300s)1. Muslim society starts to change2. China rises3. Western Europe starts to riseItalySpain* Portugal* (*Regional monarchies)Changes in the Americas and Polynesia also take placeCultural change in the MESufis increaseScholarship focused on 1. religion and legal traditions2. piety over indulgence3. decrease in sciencePhilosophers1. Al-Ghazali (one of most influential ever)Incoherence of the PhilosophersCant discover religious truth through reason (influence orthodox)2. Ibn Rushd (mostly influential in Europe)Incoherence of the Incoherence

Al-ghazali- becomes influential with orthodox Jews and Christians (4Shift in society and economyCaliphates starts to decline (1100)Landlords start to seize large estates1. How did that effect the peasants?2. Agriculture decreases WHY?Decreases (gradual and not totally complete)1. Taxes2. Trading3. Monetary system (WHY?)Eventually see the rise of the OttomansPeasants become serfsLandlords squeeze land but dont put effort into increasing output5MongolsEncouraged 1. trade (goods and ideas)2. travel Both help W Europe HOW?Mongols fall disrupts trade. Trade moves to the sea2 societies see opportunity1. China (1405-1433)2. W Europe (after Chinese decline start to dominate)

Chinese TradeRebellions drive out MongolsMing Dynasty (lasts till 1644)Reestablish the Tang dynasty structureDiffer from Tang in expansionBegin state sponsored trade (1405)Huge merchant marineIndia firstReach ME and AfricaExpeditions led by ZhengheMing=BrilliantZhenghe- jung huh also known as Cheng Ho Zheng ho7ZhengheMuslim from W ChinaEunuchWhy are these 2 aspects important?Trade (exps ostriches, lions, giraffes)Trade abruptly stops1. Costs are seen as too high2. Bureaucrats oppose the trade (jealousy)China stays trading near ChinaW Europe rises up to fill the void

Muslim- easier to deal with Muslim traders8Rise of the WestSurprising in some ways1. Awed by other empires2. Church is having problems WHY?3. Warrior aristocrats start to enjoy luxuries4. FamineWHY?5. Plague (1348-1375)How does it reach Europe?

Famine- no new techniquespopulation grows bigger than food supply

9Plague Results1. 1/3rd of the population dies2. Civil unrest WHY?3. Some turn to religion but overallReligion decreases in most areas WHY?4. Workers conditions start to get better WHY?Standard of living goes up even though5. Prices go up WHY?6. Feudalism declines WHY?7. Clothing styles change for upper class WHY?Civil unrest- people abandoned friends and familyReligion- clergy die and failure of prayer to work10

Dynamism in EuropeDynamismWhat is it?Why did it happen?1. 100 years War (1337-1453)Britain vs FranceIncrease military innovation (gunpowder for weapons)2.Gov becomes more stable/effective3. Growth of citiesWhy is this important?Dynamism= Vigorous activity and progress13Dynamism4. Spain and Portugal drive out Muslims5. New Ideas (metallurgy)Mongols6. World market problemsEurope goods arent as good (Asian goods worth more)Made up for in gold (need to find more)7. Muslim threat (Ottoman Empire)Want to trade with India etc HOW?8. Renaissance

100 Years War1. Dispute over land2. Dispute over successionFrance should have won easily but took a whileAided by Joan of Arc Battle of OrleansEventually captured and burned at the stake (age 19)Heresy and wearing mens clothing

AftermathEngland Switched from continental control to naval powerMilitary advancementsFeudalism declines professional standing armiesWar of the Roses in England

War of the Roses1455-1487Between 2 royal houses of the PlantagenetYork (White Rose) vs Lancaster (Red Rose)Causes1. Economic problems from 100 years war2. mental illness of Henry VIHenry Tudor defeats Richard III (starts House of Tudor)Becomes Henry VII marries Elizabeth of York (unites houses)Give birth to Henry who becomes Henry VIIIHenry VIIIs daughter Elizabeth (Anne Boleyn)Becomes Elizabeth I (Virgin Queen)

Catherine of Aragon(annulled)Anne Boleyn (beheaded)Jane Seymour (died in childbirth)Anne of Cleves (divorced)Catherine Howard (beheaded)Catherine Parr (survived)22Daily LifeUrban population (what is urban?)1. Nobility (Patricians)2. Merchants (Wool processors, boat making, banking (guilds) (Burghers)3. Middle class (shopkeepers, professionals)4. WorkersWHAT WOULD LIFE HAD BEEN LIKE AT THIS TIME?

Marriage and family (nuclear family)People wait to get married and have fewer kids WHY?

Pa Tri shins23Quote from a merchantThose that are lazy in a way that does harm to the city, and who can offer no just reason for their condition, should either be forced to work or expelled from the (city). The city would thus rid itself of that most harmful part of the poorest class

Do you agree?

Is it the responsibility of the government to provide for the less fortunate?HumanismBasis for the Renaissance Study of classical Greek and Roman litGrammar, Moral philosophy and historyPeople are basically goodProblems can be solved with reason instead of just religion (doesnt reject it)Start by using Latin but switch to the VERNACULARWHY?

RenaissanceWhere does it start? When?

Why does it start where it does?

Rebirth of learning WritingCodes of behavior (chivalry)Visual Arts (cityscapes, portraits, nature, perspective)MusicArchitecture (Gothic to classical)1300-15001. More contact with Roman tradition2. Leader in banking and trade3. more urbanized 26Northern RenaissanceItalian Renaissance declines1. Invasions by France and Spain2. New Atlantic trade routesNorthern Renaissance happens later in France, Netherlands, Germany, England, PolandMajor differenceN Renaissance focused more on religion

Writers Petrarch (1304-1374)Father of Humanism Felt people could reach heights of the pastCoined term Dark Ages Boccaccio (1313-1375)Decameron (100 tales)Written in the vernacular

Decameron 7 women and 3 men tell stories while hiding out in a villa during the Black Death Florence29MachiavelliFather of modern political theoryWrote The PrinceGuide on how to ruleRulers were to govern the state for good but must be ready to do evil when necessary. Justified by wickedness of the peopleThe ends justify the means

Since love and fear can hardly exist together, if we must choose between them, it is far safer to be feared than loved.

Do you believe that?Gutenberg BiblePrinted with moveable typeWhy was this important?

Art (De Medici)

PaintersCimabueGiotto ApprenticeMove toward people and natureDa Vinci (1450-1519)Michelangelo (1475-1514)

Chim ah boo ay33

Donatello

Raphael

Boticeeli

Brunelleschis Dome

Brunelleschi Linear Perspective

Gives the illusion of depth49

Linear Perspective Illusion of depth50ReformationCatholic Church in controversy (1517)Greed and corruptionIndulgences were soldArgumentGood deeds vs justification by faith alone (Luther)

Martin LutherPosted 95 thesesIntended to fix the church

Martin LutherEventually led to a split in the churchLutheranism (1st protestants)Keep baptism and the Eucharist (communion)Clergy can marryPublish Bible in vernacular

German rulers in Holy Roman Empire converted WHY?State could control church not the papacy Didnt challenge moneymaking (banking)Why was this important?What does the division of the church lead to?Why?

John CalvinLed the Protestant Church in Switzerland

Similar to Luther except:Predestination

CalvinismEnglish ReformationHenry VIII (Tudor) wanted an annulment Wanted a male heirWanted to marry Anne BoleynCatholic Church denied thisBroke from Catholic Church Forms the Church of England (Anglican) Makes himself the supreme head of the church

Katherine of Aragon (annulled)Anne Boleyn (annulled executed)Jane Seymour (died after child birth)Anne of Cleaves (annulled)Catherine Howard (annulled executed)Catherine Parr (widow)55English ReformationHenry dies Edward becomes King at 9 (Protestant)King Edward dies at 16Queen Mary (Bloody Mary) Tries to restore CatholicismDiesQueen Elizabeth (Virgin Queen)Protestant again

Legacy of ReformationEducational reformsChildren should have an education (taxes)Reformed clergy marryingKept belief in women being submissiveAnti-Semitism remained strong Ghettos were establishedWars fought between Christians in the name of GODCounter-ReformationCatholic Church gets stronger1. Jesuits (religious order established)Spread Catholic faith2. Reform papacy corruption3. Council of Trent (18 years)Strengthened Catholic doctrine

Calvinist and Catholic conflictEnds in 1598 (France)Edict of Nantes Huguenots (French protestants)Allowed freedom to worshipLouis XIV overturnsCauses 400,000 Huguenots to flee to US, Prussia, England, HollandHurts French economy HOW?

30 Years WarCatholics (Holy Roman Empire) vs ProtestantsMost Countries involved eventually (except England)Peace of Westphalia (1648)ResultsDecline of Catholicism in Central EuropeDecline in Holy Roman Empire (Germany devastated 100 years)Decline of Spanish Empire in EuropeNetherlands freeRise of France

England RevolutionQueen Elizabeth dies (End of Tudors)James I takes over (Stuart line)Thought he got rule b/c God wanted him to Divine Right of KingsParliament disagreedTensions rise btwn Parliament and King

WARCharles I (Cavaliers) vs Parliament (Roundheads)Parliament wins (Oliver Cromwell)Charles I executedMonarchy abolishedBecome a commonwealthCromwell dies and return to monarchyCharles II (Re