The Rwandan Genocide A Civil War Between the Hutus and the Tutsis.

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The Rwandan Genocide A Civil War Between the Hutus and the Tutsis Slide 2 Genocide Between April and June of 1994, an estimated 800,000 Rwandans, from the group known as Tutsis, were killed in the span of 100 days. Slide 3 This is their story Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Who were the Hutus? Who were the Tutsis? Slide 8 Who are the Hutus & Tutsis The Hutus and Tutsis are two groups of people that settled in present day Rwanda close to two- thousand years ago. Some scientists believe the Tutsis migrated from present day Ethiopia. Over time they worked together and united. They developed a single language (Kinyarwanda) and one set of religious and philosophical beliefs. Slide 9 Long ago, Rwanda and Burundi were one nation. The Hutu and Tutsi lived here. Slide 10 Working Together The Hutus and Tutsis were cultivators and raised livestock. With fertile soil and regular rainfall, the region where the Hutus and Tutsis lived eventually became the most densely populated nation on the entire African continent. Slide 11 A Division Begins In the 18 th century, when Rwanda emerged as a powerful and populous nation, its rulers began to measure their power in the number of their cattle. The Tutsi were rich in cattle. They were the elite and ruling class. On the other hand, the Hutu had less livestock and less power. Slide 12 Hutus vs. Tutsis The Hutus were the majority around 85%. But they were considered commoners. The Tutsis were the minority around 14%. But they were considered the elite, ruling class because of their large estates, large number of servants, and large number of cattle. Hutu 85% Tutsi 14% Slide 13 Marriage Although there were some families that intermarried, most Hutus married Hutus and most Tutsis married Tutsis. This impacted genetics and the way Hutus and Tutsis began to look. Slide 14 Physical Appearance Because the Hutus and Tutsis did not usually intermarry, their offspring began to develop similarities in their features. The Tutsis were often very tall, thin, with narrow features, and fair skin. The Hutus were often shorter, stronger, with broader features, and darker skin. Slide 15 This is a picture from the movie Hotel Rwanda. The man on the right, plays a Hutu character. The woman on the left, plays a Tutsi character. Slide 16 Colonization The Germans were the first Europeans to colonize Rwanda. They did so in the early 1900s. The Germans helped to fight off other countries that wanted to attack Rwanda (the Hutus and Tutsis). This helped to protect Rwanda and make it strong. Slide 17 Colonization Continued After WWI, the League of Nations decided that Germany could no longer rule Rwanda. The country was now under the safeguards of the League of Nations, and it was to be governed by Belgium. Slide 18 Belgium Brings Further Division Belgium decided to use the class system (that had already been put into place) to their advantage. The Belgians favored the Tutsis and gave them privileges and western-style education. Slide 19 Why did the Belgians do this? The Belgians did this because they could control Rwanda easier this way. The Belgians also favored the Tutsis because they appeared more European in their tall, slender features. They discriminated the Hutus because they appeared less European. Slide 20 How do you think the Hutus felt about this? How do you think the Tutsis felt about this? Slide 21 Identification Cards After creating laws that gave special privileges to the Tutsis how could the Belgians be sure who was a Tutsi and who was a Hutu? Tutsi, the Belgians ran into a problem Physical characteristics identified some, but not all. The solution: Have every single citizen register and carry an identification card. Slide 22 What if you had no proof? If you could not give proof of your ancestry, the Belgians would simply measure your height and other features. If you appeared more European, they listed you has a Tutsi. If your features were shorter, darker, stronger, etc. they listed you has a Hutu. Slide 23 Slide 24 Slide 25 Soon the Hutus got tired of this discrimination. What do you think they did? Slide 26 PARMEHUTU The Party for the Emancipation of the Hutus is formed in 1959. It is called Parmehutu. Hutus rebelled against the Belgian colonial power and the Tutsi elite. 150,000 Tutsis flee to Burundi (which at the time was part of Rwanda). Slide 27 Belgium Leaves In the 1960s Belgium withdraws from Rwanda. Rwanda and Burundi split into two different countries. Slide 28 The Hutus fight the Tutsis Still angry at being repressed and discriminated against for so many years, the Hutus fight the Tutsis. Many Tutsis are massacred, and many flee Rwanda. Slide 29 Igniting Violence A well-known Hutu leader, Dr. Leon Mugesera appeals to the Hutus to send the Tutsis back to Ethiopia via the rivers. Other Hutus said that they needed to clean up the filth and kill the Tutsi cockroaches. Slide 30 Negotiations Aug. 1993 Following months of negotiations, President Habyarimana (a Hutu President) and the RPF sign a peace accord that calls for a return of Tutsi refugees. 2,500 United Nations troops are deployed to Kigali to oversee the peace accord. Slide 31 Will there be peace? Despite a peace accord, the Rwandan president stalls in created a unified government in which the power is shared. At the same time, training of militias and violence intensifies. An extremist radio station, Radio Mille Collines, begins to warn: it is almost time for us to cut down the tall trees. This was code for, it is almost time to kill all of the Tutsis. Slide 32 WARNING! Human rights groups warn the international community of an impending genocide. In March of 1994, the human rights groups are forced to flee Rwanda due to the impending calamity. Only the Red Cross stays behind. Slide 33 The U.N. Leaves The U.N. is forced to leave for a variety of reasons, including increased violence in Rwanda and world tensions following a crisis that occurred in Somalia. Slide 34 GENOCIDE Slide 35 A Day that will Live in Infamy April 6, 1994 President Habyarimana and the president of Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira, are shot down in a plane and killed. No one knows who shot down the presidents plane. There are theories that the Hutus did this and there are theories that the Tutsis did this. That night the genocide begins. Slide 36 Slide 37 The Genocide The Hutu militia, at one point 30,000 people strong, slaughtered any Tutsi that came in their path. They encouraged regular Hutu civilians to do the same. In some cases, Hutus were forced to kill their Tutsi neighbors. Slide 38 The Death Toll In the span of 100 days, an estimated 800,000 Tutsis were slaughtered. They were killed primarily with knives, machetes, and clubs. 100,000 of these were children. Slide 39 Slide 40 Slide 41 Slide 42 Where was the help? While the genocide was going on, the world sat back and watched. No troops or aide was sent by the Americans or any other country. The victims were left screaming for help, but no one came. Slide 43 An End to the Genocide By July, the RPF (a Tutsi organization) captured the city of Kigali. The government collapsed and the RPF declared a cease-fire. As soon as it became apparent to the Hutus that the Tutsis were victorious, close to 2 million fled to Zaire (now the Republic of Congo) Slide 44 A New Government On July 19 a new multi-ethnic government was formed, promising all refugees a safe return to Rwanda. Pasteur Bizimungu, a Hutu, was inagurated as president, while the majority of cabinet posts were assigned to Tutsis. Slide 45 Justice for Genocide The new government of Rwanda continues to seek justice for the innocent murder of close to a million people. Many people have been tried in court and found guilty of war crimes. 500 have been put to death for their war crimes, and another 100,000 are still in prison!!! Slide 46 What does the future hold for Rwanda? Only time will tell. Slide 47 Works Cited Human Rights Watch Publications Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda/Geno1-3- 09.htm#P200_83746 http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda/Geno1-3- 09.htm#P200_83746 BBC News Rwanda: How a Genocide Happened http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1288230.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/1288230.stm PBS Frontline Timeline Rwanda: A Chronology of Key Events http://pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/rwanda/etc/cron.html

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