Genocide in Africa Sudan and Rwanda. The Rwandan Genocide A Civil War Between the Hutus and the Tutsis

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<ul><li>Slide 1</li></ul> <p>Genocide in Africa Sudan and Rwanda Slide 2 The Rwandan Genocide A Civil War Between the Hutus and the Tutsis Slide 3 Genocide Between April and June of 1994, an estimated 800,000 Rwandans, from the group known as Tutsis, were killed in the span of 100 days. Slide 4 Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 Who are the Hutus &amp; Tutsis The Hutus and Tutsis are two groups of people that settled in present day Rwanda close to two- thousand years ago. Some scientists believe the Tutsis migrated from present day Ethiopia. Over time they worked together and united. They developed a single language (Kinyarwanda) and one set of religious and philosophical beliefs. Slide 8 Long ago, Rwanda and Burundi were one nation. The Hutu and Tutsi lived here. Slide 9 Working Together The Hutus and Tutsis were cultivators and raised livestock. With fertile soil and regular rainfall, the region where the Hutus and Tutsis lived eventually became the most densely populated nation on the entire African continent. Slide 10 A Division Begins In the 18 th century, when Rwanda emerged as a powerful and populous nation, its rulers began to measure their power in the number of their cattle. The Tutsi were rich in cattle. They were the elite and ruling class. On the other hand, the Hutu had less livestock and less power. Slide 11 Hutus vs. Tutsis The Hutus were the majority around 85%. But they were considered commoners. The Tutsis were the minority around 14%. But they were considered the elite, ruling class because of their large estates, large number of servants, and large number of cattle. Hutu 85% Tutsi 14% Slide 12 Marriage Although there were some families that intermarried, most Hutus married Hutus and most Tutsis married Tutsis. This impacted genetics and the way Hutus and Tutsis began to look. Slide 13 Physical Appearance Because the Hutus and Tutsis did not usually intermarry, their offspring began to develop similarities in their features. The Tutsis were often very tall, thin, with narrow features, and fair skin. The Hutus were often shorter, stronger, with broader features, and darker skin. Slide 14 This is a picture from the movie Hotel Rwanda. The man on the right, plays a Hutu character. The woman on the left, plays a Tutsi character. Slide 15 Colonization The Germans were the first Europeans to colonize Rwanda. They did so in the early 1900s. The Germans helped to fight off other countries that wanted to attack Rwanda (the Hutus and Tutsis). This helped to protect Rwanda and make it strong. Slide 16 Colonization Continued After WWI, the United Nations decided that Germany could no longer rule Rwanda. The country was now under the safeguards of the United Nations, and it was to be governed by Belgium. Slide 17 Belgium Brings Further Division Belgium decided to use the class system (that had already been put into place) to their advantage. The Belgians favored the Tutsis and gave them privileges and western-style education. Slide 18 Why did the Belgians do this? The Belgians did this because they could control Rwanda easier this way. The Belgians also favored the Tutsis because they appeared more European in their tall, slender features. They discriminated against the Hutus because they appeared less European. Slide 19 Identification Cards After creating laws that gave special privileges to the Tutsi, the Belgians ran into a problem how could they be sure who was a Tutsi and who was a Hutu? Physical characteristics identified some, but not all. The solution: Have every single citizen register and carry an identification card. Slide 20 What if you had no proof? If you could not give proof of your ancestry, the Belgians would simply measure your height and other features. If you appeared more European, they listed you has a Tutsi. If your features were shorter, darker, stronger, etc. they listed you has a Hutu. Slide 21 Slide 22 Slide 23 Soon the Hutus got tired of this discrimination. What do you think they did? Slide 24 PARMEHUTU The Party for the Emancipation of the Hutus is formed in 1959. It is called Parmehutu. Hutus rebelled against the Belgian colonial power and the Tutsi elite. 150,000 Tutsis flee to Burundi (which at the time was part of Rwanda). Slide 25 Belgium Leaves In the 1960s Belgium withdraws from Rwanda. Rwanda and Burundi split into two different countries. Slide 26 The Hutus fight the Tutsis Still angry at being repressed and discriminated against for so many years, the Hutus fight the Tutsis. Many Tutsis are massacred, and many flee Rwanda. Slide 27 Igniting Violence A well-known Hutu leader, Dr. Leon Mugesera appeals to the Hutus to send the Tutsis back to Ethiopia via the rivers. Other Hutus said that they needed to clean up the filth and kill the Tutsi cockroaches. Slide 28 Negotiations Aug. 1993 Following months of negotiations, President Habyarimana (a Hutu President) and the RPF (Rwanda Patriotic Front) sign a peace accord that calls for a return of Tutsi refugees. 2,500 United Nations troops are deployed to Kigali to oversee the peace accord. Slide 29 Will there be peace? Despite a peace accord, the Rwandan president stalls in created a unified government in which the power is shared. At the same time, training of militias and violence intensifies. An extremist radio station, Radio Mille Collines, begins to warn: it is almost time for us to cut down the tall trees. This was code for, it is almost time to kill all of the Tutsis. Slide 30 WARNING! Human rights groups warn the international community of an impending genocide. In March of 1994, the human rights groups are forced to flee Rwanda due to the impending calamity. Only the Red Cross stays behind. Slide 31 The U.N. Leaves The U.N. is forced to leave for a variety of reasons, including increased violence in Rwanda and world tensions following a crisis that occurred in Somalia. Slide 32 GENOCIDE Slide 33 A Day that will Live in Infamy April 6, 1994 President Habyarimana and the president of Burundi, Cyprien Ntaryamira, are shot down in a plane and killed. No one knows who shot down the presidents plane. There are theories that the Hutus did this and there are theories that the Tutsis did this. That night the genocide begins. Slide 34 Slide 35 The Genocide The Hutu militia, at one point 30,000 people strong, slaughtered any Tutsi that came in their path. They encouraged regular Hutu civilians to do the same. In some cases, Hutus were forced to kill their Tutsi neighbors. Slide 36 The Death Toll In the span of 100 days, an estimated 800,000 Tutsis were slaughtered. They were killed primarily with knives, machetes, and clubs. 100,000 of these were children. Slide 37 Slide 38 Slide 39 Slide 40 Where was the help? While the genocide was going on, the world sat back and watched. No troops or aide was sent by the Americans or any other country. The victims were left screaming for help, but no one came. Slide 41 An End to the Genocide By July, the RPF (a Tutsi organization) captured the city of Kigali. The government collapsed and the RPF declared a cease-fire. As soon as it became apparent to the Hutus that the Tutsis were victorious, close to 2 million fled to Zaire (now the Republic of Congo) Slide 42 A New Government On July 19 a new multi-ethnic government was formed, promising all refugees a safe return to Rwanda. Pasteur Bizimungu, a Hutu, was inagurated as president, while the majority of cabinet posts were assigned to Tutsis. Slide 43 Justice for Genocide The new government of Rwanda continues to seek justice for the innocent murder of close to a million people. Many people have been tried in court and found guilty of war crimes. 500 have been put to death for their war crimes, and another 100,000 are still in prison!!! Slide 44 What does the future hold for Rwanda? Only time will tell. Slide 45 Genocide in Darfur Slide 46 What is happening? In the Darfur region of the African nation of Sudan, the government has organized a program of ethnic cleansing, or the elimination of a racial group from an area. Slide 47 Since 2004, over 400,000 Sudanese men, women and children have been brutally murdered, with thousands raped, and over two million forced to flee their villages... Slide 48 This violence has been perpetrated by a government militia known as janjaweedwhich means devil on horseback, and their President Omar al-Bashir. The dictator of Sudan, Omar al- Bashir The janjaweed killersTheir leader Slide 49 Slide 50 It has been labeled a genocide, or the mass killing of a group because of their race, religion, politics or identity. Slide 51 1-2 million are now living in refugee camps Slide 52 1)Discrimination: The government of Sudan is run by Arab-Africans, who consider themselves better than the black Africans of Darfur Why is this happening? A black African from Darfur President Bashir, an Arab African Slide 53 Arabization Slide 54 2)Resources: The government of Sudan is also interested in the vast amount of oil and water that exists under Darfur Slide 55 3)Power: The government in Sudan is a dictatorship that doesnt want to give any power to the people of Darfur. Slide 56 Why isnt this being stopped? 1.Many countries in the worldmost notably China- -get their oil from Sudan. Because of this, these nations hesitate to get involved against the Sudanese. government. Slide 57 2. Sudan is also a vast desert nation the size of Europe with very few roads. Because of this distance, it is an easy place to get away with murder. Slide 58 # 3. This distance has also made relief efforts for the refugees difficult, all because Sudans President Bashir has made strict rules that keep people from Darfur. Slide 59 The Human Cost Slide 60 Childrens Pictures Slide 61 Slide 62 What can we do? </p>