the federal bureaucracy. bureaucratic organization

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Chapter 10

Chapter 10The Federal BureaucracyChapter 10Section 1Bureaucratic OrganizationThe federal bureaucracy is organized into departments, agencies, boards, commissions, corporations, and advisory committees.

The Founders anticipated (in Article II of the Constitution) the need for creating federal agencies that would carry on the day-to-day business of government.OrganizationThe 15 executive departments, headed by cabinet-rank officers, are a major part of the federal bureaucracy.

These departments are headed by secretaries and staffed with assistant secretaries, deputy secretaries, and directors of major units.

The Cabinet DepartmentsThe Department of State and the Department of the Treasury were created by Congress in 1789 and are still among the most important.The Department of State is responsible for the overall foreign policy of the United States and staffs the embassies located in foreign countries.The Department of the Treasury is responsible for managing the monetary resources of the United States. It also includes the Internal Revenue Service or IRS.The Cabinet DepartmentsDepartment of the InteriorCharged with protecting public lands and natural resources.Department of AgricultureCreated to help farmers improve their incomes and expand their markets.Department of JusticeIncludes the FBI, US Marshals Service, and the Drug Enforcement Administration.The Cabinet DepartmentsDepartment of CommerceDesigned to promote and protect the industrial and commercial segments of the American economy.Department of LaborCharged with protecting American workers by ensuring safe working conditions, enforcing minimum wages, and protecting pension rights.Department of DefenseThrough the joint chiefs of staff- the leaders of the Army, Navy, Marines, and Air Force- it oversees the armed forces.The Cabinet DepartmentsDepartment of Health and Human ServicesManages Medicare and Medicaid programs and helps senior citizens and less fortunate Americans through the Social Security Administration.Department of Housing and Urban DevelopmentPreserves the nation's communities and ensures Americans of equal housing opportunities.Department of TransportationDivided into separate agencies to help it regulate all aspects of American transportation needs, policy development, and planning.The Cabinet DepartmentsDepartment of EnergyPlans energy policy and researches and develops energy technology.

Department of EducationCoordinates federal assistance programs for public and private schools.The Cabinet DepartmentsDepartment of Veteran AffairsAdministers several hospitals as well as educational and other programs designed to bandit veterans and their families.

Department of Homeland SecurityControls the Coast Guard, the Border Patrol, the Immigration and Naturalization Service, the Customs Service, the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and many other agencies.

The Cabinet DepartmentsThe federal bureaucracy includes over 100 independent organizations whose heads are appointed by the president.

The services of several independent agencies, such as NASA, are widely publicized and are as large and well known as cabinet departments.Independent AgenciesAssisting the Executive BranchGeneral Service AdministrationResponsible for constructing and maintaining government buildings.Central Intelligence AgencyGathers information about what is going on is other countries, evaluates it, and passes it on the president and other foreign-policy decision makers.Independent AgenciesGovernment CorporationsMany major agencies are government corporations, or businesses the federal government runs.The Executive Branch has at least 60 government corporations.The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation insures bank account up to a certain amount so customers do not lose money if a bank fails.The US Postal Service is a government owned entity charged with delivering mail.

Independent AgenciesPurpose of CommissionsMakes rules for businesses and industries that affect the public interest.Can investigate a business for breaking one the commissions rules.

Problems with CommissionsThey are often under intense pressures from the groups they regulate and their lobbyists.Regulatory CommissionsDeregulationHave become more limited in their powers because critics have complained that they over-regulate the economy.Cutting the Federal WorkforceCost was cut in federal agencies by reducing the number of workers in those agencies.Promoting CompetitionCongress passed legislation streamlining regulation of the securities industry.Regulatory CommissionsChapter 10Section 2The Civil Service SystemOnly 11% of all federal employees work in Washington, D. C.

Many federal emplyees work in offices throughout the United States and the world.The Civil Service SystemThe Spoils SystemSpoils System: the practice of victorious politicians rewarding their followers with government jobsGovernment jobs became a spoils system under President Andrew Jackson.Spoils system led to inefficiency and corruption in government.OriginsCalls for ReformCalls for reform started in the 1850s.Inefficiency grew because government jobs became more complex and required expert staff members.Corruption developed as people used their jobs for political gain.The Pendleton ActThe assassination of President Garfield by a disappointed office seeker led to the Pendleton Act of 1883, establishing the present civil service system based on competitive examinations and merit.

OriginsGetting a JobThere is significant competition for federal jobs with an average of 76 people applying for each job.Applicants for jobs are evaluated on the basis of their experience and training.The Office of Personal Management is responsible for filling federal jobs.Veterans are often given preference.The Civil Service System TodayBenefits and ProblemsGovernment jobs are attractive because they offer many benefits including competitive pay, vacation time, and retirement.Government workers have job security and are difficult to fire which can sometimes assist incompetent employees.The Hatch ActThe Hatch Act of 1939 was intended to prevent political parties from using federal workers to aid in election campaigns.In recent years, critics have argued for and against this law with workers now allowed some involvement in politics.The Civil Service System TodayNearly 10% of executive branch employees are appointed by the president.

Many choice jobs are appointed by the president which allows for loyal supporters to be placed in key offices

These political appointees are outside civil service and are first and foremost the presidents political supporter.Political Appointees in GovernmentPolitical appointees are not experts in the work of their agencies and when the president leaves office many of them return to private sector jobs.

Many political appointees hold their positions for short tenures making it hard to learn about their jobs.

Much of the real power over daily operations remain in the hands of career officials.

Political Appointees in GovernmentChapter 10Section 3The Bureaucracy at WorkPolicy consists of all the actions taken or not taken by the government.

Federal bureaucrats carry out policy decisions made by the president and Congress.

The bureaucracy often determines what the law means through the rules and regulations it issues.Influencing PolicyIn 1995 Congress set paperwork reduction goals for future years.

Bureaucrats aid in shaping policy by helping Congress draft its new laws or by providing ideas for legislation.

Influencing PolicyWorkers in federal agencies shape policy by their decisions about the application of rules and regulations and by hearing disputes.

Bureaucrats also supply advice and information to top decision makers, influencing whether an agency supports or opposes certain politics.

Influencing PolicyNational Growth and TechnologyThe growth of the bureaucracy mirrors the growth of the nations population and rapid changes in technology.

International CrisesThe Cold War and international crises since World War II spurred the growth of the bureaucracy.Why the Bureaucracy Makes PolicyEconomic ProblemsThe New Deal doubled the size of the federal government.The federal government has a special responsibility both to stimulate the nations economy and to regulate unfair business practices.

Why the Bureaucracy Makes PolicyCitizen DemandsCitizen special-interest groups demanded various services and programs.The Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, and Labor were created to meet the increased demands of farmers, businesspeople, and workers.

The Nature of BureaucracyOnce created, government agencies almost never go away.

Why the Bureaucracy Makes PolicyInfluence of CongressCongress has an important influence over bureaucrats.Congress can influence decision making in federal agencies.Congresss main power over the bureaucracy in its control of agencies budgets.

Influencing Bureaucratic DecisionsInfluence of the CourtsCitizens may challenge agencies actions in courts.Federal courts can issue an injunction.Injunction: federal order that will stop a particular action or enforce a rule or regulation.

Success in Court CasesCitizens have not had much success in court cases against the bureaucracy.Influencing Bureaucratic DecisionsFederal agencies have client groups that try to influence decisions.Client Group: individual and groups who work with a government agency and are most affected by its decisions

The close cooperation between congressional committees, client groups, and a federal agency or department is referred to as an iron triangle.Iron triangles allow interest groups influence outside the control of the executive branch.The Influence of Client Groups


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