the dutch republic 1581-1713. jan vermeer view of delft c. 1660-1

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  • The Dutch Republic1581-1713

  • Jan Vermeer View of Delftc. 1660-1

  • Jan Vermeer Street in Delftc. 1657-8

  • Netherlands Map

  • Dutch Independence1581: Virtual independence from Philip II of Spain; full recognition of independence in 1640sNorthern portion of The Low Countries became Dutch RepublicSouthern portion became Spanish Netherlands and then finally BelgiumRepublic consisted of 7 states, previously had separate HRE principalities

  • Dutch Republic GovernmentWide individual freedoms and tolerationEstates General composed of High Mightinesses, who could only act as the provincial estates allowedProvinces remained jealous of their own independence from one anotherEach province elected a stadholderSeven provinces tended to elect the same man, so pragmatic unification occurred

  • Jan Vermeer Girl with a Pearl Earringc. 1664-5

  • Dutch ToleranceLarge Calvinist majorityDutch Calvinists split into traditional Calvinists and less-severe ArminiansArminians persecuted until 1632, then toleratedJews were welcomed, and played strong role in economyMennonites and other sects persecuted elsewhere were welcomedEconomic success and social stability were valued: so toleration was prizedEphraim Bonus, Jewish Physician by Rembrandt

  • Rembrandt, The Jewish Bride1666

  • Rembrandt, Mennonite Minister, 1641

  • Dutch BankingEuropean money was in disarray: inconsistent metal weights & alloys1609: Founded Bank of AmsterdamBoA was one of few central banks in EuropeBoA accepted all deposits, credited depositors with official gold florins, according to exchange rates based on coins purity and weightBoA allowed depositors to write checks against balancesBoA caused Amsterdam to become Europes financial capitalRembrandt commemorative 5 Euro Coin

  • Dutch Shipping and Commerce1600: Dutch owned 10,000 shipsOwned most of shipping trade in northern Europe throughout 1600sCarried trade between Spain, France, England, and BalticMost shipping along French coast was DutchTraded with China, Africa (Cape Hoorn), East India, Batavia, Japan, Americas, and Caribbean1651: English Navigation Acts outlawed third-parties from shipping English goods (e.g., the Dutch)

  • Dutch Tulip CrazeLate 1500s: Tulip introduced to Holland, and grown commerciallyEconomic bubble of 1636-37 allegedly took place1635: 40 tulip bulbs sold for 100,000 florins (enough florins to buy about 3,000 pigs)1636: tulips bulbs sold on stock exchange; bulb options also sold1637: bubble burst and prices crashedApparently, tulip mania did occur; its causes and intensity are debated

  • Jan Vermeer The Geographerc. 1668-9

  • Rembrandt, The Syndics of the Clothmaker's Guild 1662

  • Dutch Commerce and War1500s: Dutch allied with England against Spain; supported by Elizabeth in rebellion1651 Navigation Acts: led to 3 Dutch-English wars over trade1667: Dutch and English allied against Louis XIV1673: Stadholder made hereditary, but office weak by most standards1689: William of Orange became William II of England1713: Treaty of Utrecth ended threat from France until Napoleon

  • Rembrandt, The Nightwatch1642