The Consolation of Philosophy - Ex-Classics Consolation of Philosophy By Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius ... writings, which included original works and translations in many branches of study

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    The Consolation of PhilosophyBy

    Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius

    Translated from the Latin

    By

    W. V. Cooper

    Published by the Ex-classics Project, 2009http://www.exclassics.com

    Public Domain

  • BOETHIUS

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  • THE CONSOLATION OF PHILOSOPHY

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  • BOETHIUS

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    CONTENTS

    EDITORIAL NOTE.......................................................................................................5CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE .......................................................................................6BOOK I..........................................................................................................................8BOOK II.......................................................................................................................17BOOK III .....................................................................................................................28BOOK IV .....................................................................................................................46BOOK V ......................................................................................................................61

    Publisher's Note ...........................................................................................................72

    APPENDIX (See Book II, Prose III) ...........................................................................73NOTES.........................................................................................................................74

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    EDITORIAL NOTE

    THE incompatibility of the sufferings of good men, the impunity and successof bad men, with the government of the world by a good God, has been a subject ofthought among men ever since religion and abstract questions have occupied thethoughts of mankind. The poetical books of the Bible are full of it, particularly, ofcourse the book of Job, which is a dramatic poem entirely devoted to the subject. TheNew Testament contains much teaching on the same question. Among the Greeks thetragedians and later philosophers delighted in working out its problems. But from thesixth to the seventeenth centuries of our era the De Consolatione of Boethius, in itsoriginal Latin and in many translations, was in the hands of almost all the educatedpeople of the world. The author's personal history was well known. He was a manwhose fortunes had risen to the highest pitch possible under the Roman Empire; whohad himself experienced the utter collapse of those fortunes, and was known to havesustained himself through imprisonment and even to torture and an unjust death by thethoughts which he left to mankind in this book.

    It is a work which appealed to Pagan and Christian alike. There is no Christiandoctrine relied upon throughout the work, but there is also nothing which could be inconflict with Christianity. Even the personification of Philosophy, though after theform of a pagan goddess, is precisely like the 'Wisdom' of Solomon in the Apocrypha;and the same habit of thought led the Jews to personify the 'Word' of God, and use itas identical with God Himself; and the same led to that identifying of the 'Word' withChrist, which we find in the first chapter of St. John's Gospel. So, if there is nothingdistinctly or dogmatically Christian in the work, there is also nothing which can becondemned as pagan, in spite of the strong influence of pagan philosophy, with whichBoethius was intimate.

    For though some have held that the Christianity of Boethius was foisted uponhim, with his canonisation as St. Severinus, after his death by those who thought hemust have been too good a man to have been a heathen, and though the authenticity ofhis theological works also has therefore been doubted, yet we may now be almostcertain that he was a Christian, and an orthodox Christian, for if it is true that he wrotethose works, he combated Arianism during his life, and during his imprisonment hewas engaged upon a treatise on the Unity of the Trinity, as well as upon this work.Here perhaps lies an explanation of what must seem strange to us at first sight,namely, that a Christian should apparently look to Philosophy rather than to hisreligion for comfort in persecution and support at the approach of death. But it is to befeared that in his day, and in the society in which he moved, Christianity meant tomany who professed it little more than a subject for rivalry and argument among sectsand for the combating of heresies. With many of the contemporaries of Boethius,therefore, a new book of comfort sought for in Christian doctrine would not have hadmuch influence, and there seems to be no reason why people of our own day, eventhose who draw the greatest help from their religion, should not enjoy the additionalcomfort which solaced an honest and pious thinker in a time of apparently intolerableand incredible misfortune.

    The wide learning of Boethius may be partly shewn by a list of some of hiswritings, which included original works and translations in many branches of study.For instance, he translated into Latin a great number of Aristotle's works on differentsubjects, such as those on Rhetoric, Logic, the Categories, etc. He translated threebooks of Euclid, and wrote other mathematical works. He translated and wrote books

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    upon Music and Mechanics, and one upon Astronomy. His theological works includedtreatises against the Nestorians and Arians.

    But his Consolation is the work upon which his fame rests. The veneration inwhich this book was held in the middle ages and onward is abundantly shewn by thenumerous translations made of it. It was very early rendered into German, and later ontranslated into the French of the day by Jehan de Meun and others in later times; intoGreek by Maximus Planudes, into Italian and Spanish. In England translations haveappeared at intervals during the last thousand years. For just that space of time haspassed since that noble educator of his people, Alfred the Great, translated it withAsser's help, thinking, it would seem, that this work was most worthy of his people'sreading of all books after the Bible. But his version does not give us a very trueknowledge either of Boethius or his Consolation. It is of the greatest value to thestudent of Alfred, because there are many indisputably genuine sayings and opinionsof that wise man. There are wise thoughts upon kingly duty and many definitelyChristian maxims. These were outside the theme of Boethius, though wise themselvesand deeply interesting as Alfred's own work. Furthermore, the more abstruse parts arewholly omitted, probably as being of little use for King Alfred's subjects.

    In later times that most versatile scholar, Queen Elizabeth translated it.Chaucer, Sir Thomas More, and Leslie, Bishop of Ross, the adviser of Mary, Queenof Scots, wrote imitations of it. Robert of Lincoln (Grossette) commented upon it. Inthe sixteenth century appeared Colville's very fine translation. Translations in verseappeared in the seventeenth century by Harry Coningsby and Lord Preston; othersfollowed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Its influence is to be foundperhaps even in the oldest English poetry of pre-Conquest times; it is certainly verymarked in Chaucer, Gower, Spenser, and many another later poet. And in Italy, Dantemakes St. Thomas Aquinas point out the spirit of Boethius in Paradise with thesewords:--

    'Now if thy mental eye conducted beFrom light to light as I resound their fame,The eighth well worth attention thou wilt see.Within it dwells, all excellence beholding,The soul who pointed out the world's dark ways,To all who listen, its deceits unfolding.Beneath in Cieldauro lies the frameWhence it was driven; from woe and exile toThis fair abode of peace and bliss it came.'

    Paradiso, x. 121 ff.(Wright's translation.)

    CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE

    A.D

    470 Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius, born of most distinguished family.

    493 Theodoric, the Ostrogothic king, becomes sole master of Italy.

    510 Boethius consul.

    522 His two sons consuls, and Boethius distributes enormous largesses.

    526 While using his influence as Theodoric's 'magister officiorum' for the purity

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    of the government and the welfare of the Italians, Boethius was charged withtreason. Without his being allowed to defend himself, his property wasconfiscated, and he himself condemned to death. He was imprisoned atTicinum (Pavia), tortured, and brutally put to death at Calvenzano

    His father-in-law, Symmachus, was also executed.

    722. Liutprand, king of the Lombards, erected a tomb to his memory in the Churchof S. Pietro Ciel d'Oro at Pavia. (See the quotation from Dante above.)

    A few words on Theodoric may conclude this note.Theodoric was born A.D. 455, educated at Constantinople as a hostage of the

    Emperor Leo, and succeeded his father as King of the Ostrogoths in 475. His youthwas spent chiefly in war. He attacked his ally, the Emperor Zeno, in 487. To saveConstantinople, Zeno gave him leave to expel Odoacer from Italy. Practically thewhole Gothic nation migrated with Theodoric's army to Italy, where Odoacer wasthrice defeated. He consented to allow Theodoric to reign jointly with him, but he wasconveniently assassinated very soon afterwards, and Theodoric ruled till he died in526, leaving the country certainly in a better state than that in which he found it,having ruled with moderation on the whole, and choosing good ministers such asBoethius. But in his last years he became influenced by unscrupulous men, informers,barbarian Ostrogoths, who oppressed the Italians, and the most bitter Arian sectaries,by each of which classes Boethius was hat

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