TEDU 630: Trends and Issues in Special Education

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TEDU 630: Trends and Issues in Special Education. February 10 March 10, 2010. Contacting Dr. Wehman. I will make every attempt to be available to you, but I do have other commitments this semester. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<ul><li><p>TEDU 630: Trends and Issues in Special EducationFebruary 10 March 10, 2010</p></li><li><p>Contacting Dr. WehmanI will make every attempt to be available to you, but I do have other commitments this semester.I will check the course website to check for assignments/ discussion board or questions you may have.Email me whenever you need to make contact. </p></li><li><p>How this class will runCombination of face-to-face meetings and online work.Online work and readings will be the equivalent of two face-to-face meetingsBlackboard website</p></li><li><p>Blackboard websiteTEDU 630 Section C91 is our websiteYou will need a VCU account and email See handout for information about setting that up if you have not alreadyVCU Help Desk: 828-2227</p></li><li><p>Blackboard websiteContains information about the online class sessions</p><p>Combination of reading from text, websites, research you do on your own, etc.</p></li><li><p>Blackboard WebsiteAssignmentsCalendarPowerpoint presentationsLinks to important websitesLinks to course information</p></li><li><p>Overview of courseIntroduction to special education Legal aspects of special educationDeveloping Individualized Education ProgramsCharacteristics of students with disabilities</p></li><li><p>WEEK ONE: February 10, 2010What is special education?It is the art and science of teaching students who have disabilitiesdifficulties and challenges in thinking, in moving, in sensing, or in feeling.This course will seek to present an overview of both art and science.</p></li><li><p>Guiding Principles: Providing Services to Individuals with Disability</p><p>The role of supportsTransition across the life spanPersonal responsibilitySelf-determinationEducation in neighborhood schools</p></li><li><p>The art of special education: ValuesEnvisioning great expectationsEnhancing positive contributionsBuilding on strengthsActing on choicesExpanding relationshipsEnsuring full citizenship***Person-first philosophy</p></li><li><p>Who are students with disabilities?Total number of students with disabilities: 5 million students ages six to twenty-one(1999)200,000 infants and toddlers570,000 preschool childrenAge groups:3-5: 9.6%6-11: 45.4%12-17: 40.4%18-21: 4.5%</p></li><li><p>Person-first languageLanguage that reflects our current understanding thatDisability is only one aspect of who someone isThere is more that we dont know about the prognosis of a disability than we do knowLabels limit the high expectations that we can haveIndividuals with disabilities are a devalued segment of our society and until that changes, whatever language/term we use will become devalued. However, as that is happening, we have to be sure were not adding to the problem.</p></li><li><p>Portrayal IssuesDo not sensationalize a disability (victim of)Avoid using emotional descriptions (confined to a wheelchair)Avoid labeling people into groups (the disabled)Avoid portraying people who succeed as remarkable or superhumanAvoid using the word special in regard to disability. special entranceAvoid putting disability issues into medical context (client, patient)</p></li><li><p>Change these offensive termsCrippledNormalWheelchair boundMan who suffers from polioCerebral palsy victimEpilepticThe learning disabled classroomThe special bus</p></li><li><p>Socioeconomic, geographic, racial and ethnic profileThe greatest number of special education students come from low-income families who live in urban areas and in povertyMany come from families that speak a language other than English or with limited English proficiencyThere is a disproportionate representation of students from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds in programs for students with disabilities.</p></li><li><p>I became a self-advocate ten years ago. Being a self-advocate is very important to me because my self-advocacy skills taught me how to see myself as a person because of all the labels placed on me. People used to make fun of me all the time.It is real hard for me not to be upset by being called retarded or dummy, names like that. They would really hurt my feelings. It is real hard for me to deal with my feelings now. I have learned that getting mad does not do any good. I have learned to talk to people about how that makes me feel.Nancy Ward.</p></li><li><p>What are the results/outcomes?National Longitudinal Transition StudyAdults with disabilities earn less, are more likely to live in poverty, and are less likely to go to collegeGraduation resultsOne fourth of students with disabilities earned a regular high school diploma in 1996-1997.Drop-out rate is double for students with disabilities than for those without disabilities</p></li><li><p>History of Special EducationEarly HistoryItard (1799) found a boy near the woods and tried to civilize him. Named him Victor.Seguin became a student of Itards and developed teaching methods.Montessori used those methods in her Montessori method, first used with students with mental retardation.Methods came to US. Howe founded Perkins School for the Blind Gallaudet began teaching Alice Cogswell and became principal at first school for the Deaf Alexander Graham Bell started out as teacher of children who were deafAnne Sullivan Macy</p></li><li><p>History of Special EducationLater HistoryInitial surge of interest, there was disillusionmentRise of institutionsBeginning of sterilization and eugenics movementFearFocus on protection of society</p></li><li><p>History of Special EducationServices-based movement 1960-1980Kennedys presidency was impetus for many changesFocus on families: the ARCBeginning of litigationDiana v. Board of Education (CA) (1970) Parc v. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (1972)Mills v. Washington, DC Board of Education (1972)Led to P.L. 94-142 (1975): Education of all Handicapped Children Act (EHA)</p></li><li><p>P.L. 94-142: EHAAll children with disabilities are entitled to a free and appropriate public education (FAPE)Ages 6-21Protected the rights of the parents throughout the process (procedural safeguards)Required the development of an individualized education programStudents must receive education in least restrictive environment possible.Students qualified on basis of disability and need.</p></li><li><p>History of Special EducationSupports-based movement (1980-present)Inclusive education advocated by parents &amp; professionals Attention to early intervention is promoted Employment opportunities enriched through Supported Employment Notion of supports is validated and encouraged Focus on self-determination/self-advocacy</p></li><li><p>Educational law amendmentsP.L. 94-142 has been amended four times by Congress, most recently in 1997.Added infants, toddlers and preschoolers to qualified studentsIDEA became name of law in 1990 to reflect person-first languageAdded autism and traumatic brain injury as categoriesAdded transition planningExpanded related services list</p></li><li><p>IDEAIndividuals with Disabilities Education ActName change in 1990Reauthorization in 1997Now being reviewed for reauthorization, changesIts important to know what is being considered, and make your thoughts known.http://www.specialednews.com/washwatch/washnews/bushcommission012002.html</p></li><li><p>Key components of IDEADisability CategoriesMental retardationSpecific learning disabilitiesSerious emotional disturbancesSpeech or language impairmentsVision lossHearing lossOrthopedic impairmentsOther health impairmentsDeaf/blindnessMultiple disabilitiesAutismTraumatic brain injuryDemonstrated need to specialized instruction and related services in order to receive FAPE</p></li><li><p>Disability CategoriesSpecific Learning DisabilitiesSpeech or language impairmentsMental retardation/cognitive disabilitiesEmotional or behavior disordersOther health impairmentsMultiple disabilitiesHearing impairmentsOrthopedic impairmentsAutismVisual impairmentsTraumatic brain injuryDevelopmental delayDeaf-blindness51.0 %19.8 %</p><p>11.2 %</p><p>0.8.4 %03.5 %02.0 %01.3 %01.2 %00.8 %00.5 %00.2 %00.03%00.03%</p></li><li><p>Key components of IDEAFAPEBased on 14th amendment guarantee for equal protection under the lawHendrick Hudson District board of Education v. Rowley (1982)Does not have to be ideal educationPart B: students ages 3-21Part C: students birth to age 3</p></li><li><p>Six principles of IDEAZero rejectNondiscriminatory evaluationAppropriate educationLeast restrictive environmentProcedural due processParental and student participation</p></li><li><p>Key components of IDEAZero rejectNondiscriminatory evaluationAppropriate educationLeast restrictive environmentProcedural due processParent and student participation</p></li><li><p>Key components of IDEAZero rejectAll students with disabilities, no matter how significant their support needs, are entitled to a free and appropriate educationBehaviorally, students whose behavior problems are caused by their disabilities can not be suspended or expelled from school</p></li><li><p>Key components of IDEANondiscriminatory EvaluationPurposes: determine whether a student has a disability and the nature of the special education and related services the student needs.Four-step processScreeningPrereferralReferralNondiscriminatory evaluation</p></li><li><p>Key components of IDEANondiscriminatory EvaluationFull evaluation: should cover all aspects of students life and educationFormal evaluation: must follow certain proceduresEvaluation team (parents, general education teacher, special educator, a school district representative, an individual who can interpret the assessment results, others)Assessment instruments</p></li><li><p>Key components of IDEAAppropriate educationIEP: individualized education programIFSP: individualized family support planhttp://www.nichcy.org/pubs/ideapubs/lg2.pdfhttp://www.nichcy.org/pubs/stuguide/st1.pdf</p></li><li><p>The IEPThe IEP is a written statement for each student. It must include the following:Present levels of educational performanceMeasurable annual goalsServices, supplemental aids and services, program modificationsThe extent to which, if any, student will not participate with students who do not have disabilitiesProjected beginning date &amp; frequency, duration, and location of eachTransition plansHow students progress will be measured</p></li><li><p>Least restrictive environmentStudent in general education classStudent in general education class, consultative specialist provides assistanceStudent in general education class for majority of day, resource room for specialized educationStudent in special education/resource class for majority of day, attends general education class for part of dayStudent in full-time special education classStudent in separate schoolStudent receives homebound or hospital-based instruction.</p></li><li><p>Procedural due processParental safeguardsGive consent in writing before initial evaluationGive consent in writing before student begins to receive special educationRequest an independent evaluationParticipate on committees for evaluation, placement, IEP developmentInspect and review educational records/ challenge information Request copy of information from fileRequest a hearing concerning any aspect of identification, evaluation, placement, provision of FAPE. </p></li><li><p>Other laws to knowRehabilitation ActTechnology-related assistance to individuals with disabilities act of 1988Section 504 of Rehabilitation ActProhibits discrimination in any program or activity that received federal financial assistanceApplies to colleges, school programs, etc.Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)Extends the civil rights of Section 504 to public sectors of employment, transportation, government, telecommunications and privately-owned businesses open to public.</p></li><li><p>Wednesdays ClassRead information on Special Education Law and IEP from book. </p><p>Begin to determine who you will do interviews with.</p></li><li><p> Read through the information on IEP development on the website (under course documents). Also, take some time to review the information and the study guide.Read Chapter 2 on Parents and Families Role in Special Education. </p></li><li><p>The Changing Face of the FamilyDifferent family rolesFathers more involved in child careGrandparents often involved in child careProfessionals roleEncourage all family members to participateKnow familys choices, preferences</p></li><li><p>Interacting with Changing FamilyImportance of building relationshipsAvoiding negative stereotypesAppreciating the familys knowledgeLetting families make decisionsRecognizing families as co-teachersDeveloping active listening to help bridge communication gapsRespecting cultural diversity</p></li><li><p>Helping Families Manage StressStresses on familyRespite care for familiesEncourage family participation nonjudgmentallySupport systems provide respiteRespite options available in most communities</p></li><li><p>Advocacy and EmpowermentRoads that lead to advocacyEmpowerment and self-determinationSupport groups, advocacy organizationsConsumer-driven services</p></li><li><p>SiblingsHave needs, tooChallenges for siblingsCommunicating with siblings</p><p>*Introductions*Demonstrate how to find these things*Students have capabilities that have not been tapped and we need to develop new visions of what is possible.Student contribute positively to their families, schools, friends, and communities.Students and families need opportunities for educational programs to identify, highlight, and build upon their strengths.Students and families can direct their own lives.Students and families need to connect with each other, educators, and friends in the communityLess able does not mean less worthy. All students are entitled to full participation in American life.*See pages 6 &amp; 7*See page 13 for number and percentage of students in special education by race/ethnicity and disability in 1994).What trends do you see, and what does it mean for special education teachers?*See page 15 for post-school results.Special education hasnt fulfilled its promise, and as a result, when the law was reauthorized in 1997, there was a call for accountability and link to general education curriculum.*See page 9, figure 1-4 to see how terms have changed to reflect societal values. What terms we use really do make a difference, and we will use the most positive, up-to-date terms in this class whenever possible.*Cannot exclude any student: educability, cant expel or suspend if behavior is caused by disability (manifest determination), contagious diseasesNondiscriminatory evaluation: 2 purposes: determine whether student has disability; and does he need special education and what does he need?Appropriate education: IEP or IFSP; benefit rule; provide related services.LRE: presumption in favor of inclusion; use of supplementary aids and services; continuum of services; must look at nonacademic activitiesProcedural due process: a process for resolving disagreements: mediation, due process hearings; appeal to court. Notice to parents. *Assessment instruments: must be culturally and linguistically nonbiased.Must include a range of information and multiple methods (norm-referenced, criterion-referenced). Must be based on standards for each disability.*See page 61.*Rehab. Act relates to employment/work. Tech-Act: federal funds to states to create systems for delivery of AT and technology to people with disabilities. Capacity building legislation.Section 504 (1975)amendment to rehabilitation act. No otherwise qualified individual with a disability shall, solely by reasons of his or her disability, be discriminated against in certain realms of American life. Definition on pg. 35.</p></li></ul>