Teaching as a Performing Art

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<p>Teaching as a performing artUncharted Territories of Classroom Interaction</p> <p>Cem Bal kanlGazi University ELT Department balcikanli@gazi.edu.tr</p> <p>Map of the Presentation</p> <p>Defining the issue: Common grounds of teaching and art Defining the use of drama in ELT Some important studies Uncharted territories: Discussion of possible research areas Concluding remarks</p> <p>Art or Science?</p> <p>Eisner (1979) : "most of those who teach-indeed, even those who study teaching scientifically - often regard their own teaching as an artistic activity" (p. 153).</p> <p>Why a need for taking teacher as an artist, a performer?</p> <p>We define teaching, identify the models, strategies, approaches and methods for teaching. We even prepare hundreds of What to do lists and commandments with endless items</p> <p>ULTRA SUPERB WHAT TO DO LIST! You can do it! We hopeTHE PEARLS OF ACADEMIC SUGGESTIONS</p> <p>Use your voice and body language effectively Eye contact is very important. However, after three seconds, the emotional transfer begins. So watch out!!! Try to look confident but do not be threatening</p> <p>BUT HOW?</p> <p>Make them feel that you are for but not against them</p> <p>Why a need for taking teacher as an artist, a performer?</p> <p>teaching is not like inducing a chemical reaction; it is much more like painting a pictureyou must realize that it cannot be all be done by formulas, or you will spoil your work. Eisner (1979, p.8).</p> <p>Why a need for taking teacher as an artist, a performer?</p> <p>Haycraft noted (1999) Teaching English successfully is not just a question of method. I have observed many classes where teachers techniques were superb, but where the students were reluctant to learn and the lesson developed like the workings of a machine, functioning in isolation. (p.6).</p> <p>Why a need for taking teacher as an artist, a performer?</p> <p>As actors do, teachers must evoke, too; otherwise, the productive educational interaction can be stifled. (Griggs, 2001)</p> <p>And when stifled, the lesson may develop like the workings of a machine, functioning in isolation.</p> <p>Why a need for taking teacher as an artist Teacher as a performer</p> <p>Nature of the methodology classes and seminars ( or why is reflective approach popular?) The dynamic nature of the atmosphere in the classroom A play with a one player Aesthetical aspects of communication</p> <p>Teaching is artistic because </p> <p>it is spontaneous and unpredictible it can be described by aesthetical norms and criteria when performed effectively. it cannot be detached from the reactions of the learners. it aims at acting out a text! it appeals to emotions!</p> <p>To act is to react</p> <p>A Clear definition of art</p> <p>Art is the aesthetical expression of reality. (Aristotle) Communication Language Teaching</p> <p>AestheticRealityExpression</p> <p>- Art is nothing but a language!- Just like any other languages, it is for communication. - It is inductive and indirect; never orders, but suggests. - Different from languages, it directly appeals to emotions of the people! - Performing arts, including drama, is all about creating atmosphere in which people can create new thinking dispositions and attitudes! - In order to observe and create atmosphere, a performer first observe her/his emotions carefully.</p> <p>Why a need for arts (acting) in teacher education?</p> <p>DRAMA AS A FLT TECHNIQUE</p> <p>DRAMA AS A TEACHER/TEACHING SKILL</p> <p>Communication as the aesthetic component of teaching</p> <p>It is by way of communication that art becomes the incomparable organ of instruction, but the way is so remote from that usually associated with education Piaget(1934, p.347).</p> <p>Common Grounds A Broad Beginning</p> <p>Teachers, like actors, attempt to communicate to groups of people in an audience-like situation, and both the actor and the teacher employ qualities to enhance communication .. ; both must come through to the people with whom they work.Elliot Eisner (1968,362)</p> <p>Enhancing Communication The nature of nonverbal communication</p> <p>Experts estimate that at least %65 of the meaning in any social context is conveyed nonverbally. (Burgoon, Buller and Woodwall, 1989) As for classroom setting, Kellogg and Lawson (1993) claim that %82 of teachers communication is nonverbal.</p> <p> %82</p> <p>of teachers communication is nonverbal!</p> <p>A Finding of Jeremy Harmer</p> <p>One hour course of 100 language teachers were recorded on video. They watched themselves and gave reflections to Harmer. Only 8 of them were aware of their nonverbal communication. The reflection of the rest?</p> <p>A Paper presented by J.Harmer at 41st IATEFL Congress, Aberdeen,UK</p> <p>In the pursuit of teaching as an art</p> <p>Ivie, Flora and Short (2001) carried out a research on the definition of the teaching by asking teachers to make a choice among 8 quotation of prominent scholars. Four of the quotations expressed the view that teaching is a science. The other four quotations asserted that teaching is an art. 287 teachers expected to choose the definition best describes the teaching.</p> <p>The Studies on Acting &amp; Teaching</p> <p>Stanislawski The Acting Method Remains theoretical More What to do lists</p> <p>An interesting stance</p> <p>TESOL practitioners are, as individuals in the particular circumstances of their own classrooms, acting as artists in the exercise of their craft. They are not scientists seeking to eliminate variety in the interests of establishing generalities. They are not technologists seeking to exploit the findings of science by manipulation. As artists, they react to variety and give shape and meaning to it, and they do so by reference to the principles of their craft.(Widdowson, 2000:4)</p> <p>A Metaphor based on Widdowsons Proposal</p> <p>Syllabus = PLAY SCRIPT Teacher = ACTOR &amp; ACTRESS</p> <p>Points to Ponder</p> <p>Can we lead language teachers to an awareness on nonverbal communication? Are teachers systematically taught on the nature and dynamics of nonverbal communication? Do the current syllabuses of ELT Departments help the teacher trainees develop awareness and skills on encoding and decoding the right nonverbal messages?</p> <p>The Uncharted TerritoriesTheoretical Framework</p> <p>What are the ways in which teaching is like the arts? How can schools of education reorganize teacher education along artistic lines? Is the current picture of the teaching literature shaped by the nature of the current understanding of the research methods and conventions, or just the contemporary stance of the scholars?</p> <p>The Uncharted TerritoriesResearch for Enhancing Practice</p> <p>Nature and dynamics of stage synesthesis in classes How to create the right atmosphere and observe &amp; manipulate the existing one? Identifying some certain acting techniques to be used in ELT classes Implementing the principles of an acting method to teacher training to raise self-awareness on nonverbal communication, atmosphere conducting and effective use of body language and voice.</p> <p>The Uncharted TerritoriesResearch for Enhancing Practice Effects of nonverbal communication in teachingConsciousness in non-verbal communication (as a teacher) and motivation types and levels of the students Consciousness in non-verbal communication (as a teacher) and teaching para-language of the L2</p> <p> Effective</p> <p>use of nonverbal communication and classroom conduct</p> <p>The Uncharted TerritoriesResearch for Enhancing Practice Effects of nonverbal communication in teaching How more gets communicated than is said implementing humanistic teaching via some strategies of nonverbal/nonlinguistic communication</p> <p>A research on identification of the universals of effective nonverbal/nonlinguistic communication in ELT classes</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We cant think of making use of effective teaching materials, syllabuses and so on without an effective teacher. Taking teaching as a performing art may lead us to do more research on the HOWS so as to realize the WHATS of teaching. In order to find out some lists of HOWS, we need to do some research and then some adjustments in teacher education.</p> <p>THANK YOU FOR YOUR KIND ATTENTIONDr.K.Sinan zmenGazi Universitesi C-Blok C122 Be evler/Ankara sozmen@gazi.edu.tr</p>