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Roles of Technology Licensing Organizations (TLOs) in the Commercialization of Life Sciences Japan s Situation and Problems. Takuji Hara Graduate School of Business Administration Kobe University. Contents. The Process of Innovation The Bridging Problem - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Roles of Technology Licensing Organizations (TLOs) in the Commercialization of Life SciencesJapans Situation and ProblemsTakuji HaraGraduate School of Business AdministrationKobe University

    2002.3.18

  • ContentsThe Process of InnovationThe Bridging ProblemTLO as an Organization for Bridging the Two CulturesThe Area of Life SciencesSome Case StudiesA SurveyConclusions

    2002.3.18

  • The Process of InnovationThe Linear ModelSciencesTechnologiesProducts

    2002.3.18

  • The Interactive ModelProducts

    SciencesTechnologies OrganizationsInstitutions

    2002.3.18

  • The Interactive ModelAn Example: PharmaceuticalsHara, T. (2003), Innovation in the pharmaceutical industry, Edward Elgar

    CompoundApplication

    Organizational AuthorizationMarket

    2002.3.18

  • The Two CulturesThe Culture of Academic Research (Universities)Pursuing KnowledgeDiverse and Longer-term PerspectivesThe Culture of Market Economy (Business Enterprises)Pursuing ProfitsFocused and Shorter-term Perspective

    2002.3.18

  • The Two Culture and InnovationTo achieve innovation requires both of the two cultures and their interaction.

    Bridging the gap between the two cultures is the key to innovation.

    2002.3.18

  • The Bridging ProblemBridging InnovationResearch World

    Understanding NatureReputation in the Academic SocietyBusiness World

    Making ProfitsThe Growth of the CompanyThe Need of Research FundsThe Need of New ProductsThe Desire for Contribution to Society

    2002.3.18

  • The GatekeeperReceiving Information and Translating

    2002.3.18

  • The Boundary SpannerReceiving and Sending InformationTranslating and ArrangingResearch WorldBusiness WorldBoundary Spanner

    2002.3.18

  • The System BuilderLinking Elements

    Social Actors

    Technological Components

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  • TLO as an Organization for Bridging the Two CulturesReceiving and Sending Information about Technology and MarketValuing and Enclosing Technology (Translating)Marketing Technology (Translating and Arranging)Choosing Licensees (Linking Elements)Licensing (Arranging and Linking)Management of Intellectual Properties and Licensing Contracts (Arranging)Consulting (Translating and Arranging)

    2002.3.18

  • TLOs in JapanInstitutionalized in 1998 by so-called Japans TLO act.32 Official TLOs in Japan (March 2003)Different FormsStock CorporationsIntra-university OrganizationsFoundations

    2002.3.18

  • Examples of TLOs in JapanCorporations:Hokkaido TLO (Hokkaido U. etc.)Tohoku Technoarch (Tohoku U. etc.)Institution of Tsukuba Liaison (Tsukuba U. etc.)CASTI (Tokyo U.)Kansai TLO (Kyoto U. etc.)Foundations:Osaka TLO (Osaka Prefecture, Osaka City, Osaka U. etc.)Hyogo TLO (Hyogo Prefecture, Kobe City, Kobe U. etc)Intra-University Organizations:Keio University Intellectual Property CenterWaseda University Intellectual Property Center

    2002.3.18

  • Innovation in the Area of Life SciencesVery Long Lead-timeHuge CostsHigh Risk, High ReturnDecisive PatentsExclusive Contracts Are Often Required.Significance of Each Licensing ContractFinding Excellent Partners Is Crucial.

    2002.3.18

  • Case StudiesOTM, UC San FranciscoOTTL, Harvard Medical SchoolIC Innovations, Imperial College, LondonCASTI, Tokyo University

    2002.3.18

  • OTMUC San Francisco (Aug 2001)One of UCs TLOs (Largest Income Source) 4 PhD Licensing Associates in Life Sciences Associates Have Experience in Technology Transfer in Life Sciences170 Contracts a Year, $(2)77m IncomePersonal Network Is ImportantFocus at First, Then Go OpenBio-network in the Bay Area

    2002.3.18

  • OTL, Harvard Medical School (Feb 2002)Intra-University Organization 4 PhD Associates in Life Sciences All Have Experience in Technology Transfer or Business. Income $25m Personal Network Is Important Bio-network in Boston

    2002.3.18

  • IC InnovationsImperial College, London (Jul 2001)Stock Corporation Owned by Imperial College5 Associates (2 PhDs in Life Sciences)3 of Them Have Experience in Business77 Inventions in Life Sciences32 Patents in Life SciencesHuman Network Is ImportantBio-network in London

    2002.3.18

  • CASTITokyo University (Aug 2001)Stock Corp. Owned by a Group of Academic Staff at Tokyo University 4 Associates (None Works Biotechnology Only) 2 Have Experience in Business but NOT in Life Sciences10 Contracts (10 More Close to Agreement)Co-marketing with Recruit Co. Ltd., a Human Resource Management Consultant

    2002.3.18

  • A International Comparative Survey on the Situation of TLOs in the Life Science Area(conducted in October 2001 - March 2002)Licensing Associates in Life SciencesSocial NetworksActivitiesPerformance

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  • Licensing Associates in Life Sciences

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    North America

    Japan

    t-test

    *p

  • Social Networks

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    North America

    Japan

    t-test

    *p

  • Activities

    2002.3.18

    North America

    Japan

    t-test

    *p

  • PerformanceNote) 1 dollar (Canada) = 0.6 dollar (US), 1 Yen = 0.008 dollar (US)

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    Year 2000

    North America

    Japan

    t-test

    *p

  • ConclusionsTLOs are playing a role of bridging academic and business cultures.In the area of life science, each licensing contract is important.Ability in both life science and business is a key to successful technology transfer.Human network is another key to success.Life science expertise in TLOs is insufficient in Japan.Network in the life science area is underdeveloped in Japan.The linking function of TLOs is weak in Japan.

    2002.3.18

  • Key Tasks for TLOs in JapanReinforcement of Expertise in the Life Science Area with Business Experience Development of Social Network in the Life Science AreaActivation of the Linking and Arranging Functions of TLOs

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  • RecentlyThe number of experts in life sciences in TLOs is increasing.Social networks and industrial clusters in life sciences are emerging. e.g. The Kobe Medical Industry Development ProjectSaito life science park, OsakaMore and more university-industry technology transfers in the life science area are achieved.

    2002.3.18

  • Selected ReferencesAllen, T. (1977), Managing the Flow of Technology, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Friedman, R. A. and J. Podolny (1992), Differentiation of Boundary Spanning Roles, Administrative Science Quarterly, 37, 28-47.Hara, T. (2003), Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry, Cheltenham: Edward ElgarHarmon, B. et al. (1997), Mapping the University Technology Transfer Process, Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 423-434.Hughes, T. P. (1987), The Evolution of Large Technological Systems, in The Social Construction of Technological System (W. E. Bijker et al. eds) , Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 51-82.Jamison, D. B. (1984), The Importance of Boundary Spanning Roles in Strategic Decision-Making [1], Journal of Management Studies, 21(2), 131-152.Powell, W. W., K. W. Koput and L. Smith-Doerr (1996), Inter-organizational Collaboration and the Locus of Innovation, Administrative Science Quarterly, 41, 116-145.Wiesendanger, H. (2000), A History of OTL, http://otl.stanford.edu.

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