Sustainable road maintenance strategies

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<ul><li>1.Sustainable Road Maintenance Dragos Andrei, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE 45th Annual MSA Conference September 2013</li></ul> <p>2. About Dragos Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, California State Polytechnic University Previous experience with Fugro and MACTEC P.E. California, Texas Ph.D. Arizona State University, M.S. University of Maryland Director, Pavement Recycling and Reclaiming Center at Cal Poly Pomona Principal Engineer and Partner, West Coast Engineering Consultants 3. Outline State of the Pavement Sustainability and Sustainable Roads Green Asphalt Maintenance/Rehabilitation Strategies Green Strategies for Concrete and Other Pavements Implementation of Sustainable Maintenance Strategies 4. Section 1STATE OF THE PAVEMENT 5. Source: California Local Streets and Roads Needs Assessment, January 2013, http://www.savecaliforniastreets.org/ 6. 2011: Source: Caltrans State of the Pavement 2011, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/ maint/Pavement/Pavement_Progr am/PDF/2011_SOP.pdf2007: 7. Bottom Line We inherited a vast road network: ~ 50,000 lane miles state roads ~ 200,000 lane miles local roads More than 50% of these pavements are at risk For local roads, the funding available for maintenance and rehabilitation is less than half the funding required to maintain the current condition. Traffic (demand) will continue to increase $$$ Needs will continue to increase 8. How Did We Get Here? Build, build, build but how about the future? Dont think about the future, enjoy the present Who will maintain these pavements? Not my problem I will be retired by then Who will pay for this? Dont worry, THEY will find money, things will never change How are THEY going to rebuild these pavements? Dont worry, theres plenty of oil, cement, aggregate 9. Section 2SUSTAINABILITY AND SUSTAINABLE ROADS 10. Sustainability Paradigm 11. Sustainable Roads: Key Features Durability Low maintenance Low emissions/energy Recyclable Permeable Cool Smooth Quiet Complete, aesthetically pleasing. 12. Pavement Condition Index (PCI)VERY GOOD GOOD FAIRPOORM&amp;R Immediate EffectWithout M&amp;R, Pavements Will Fail Life Extension due to M&amp;ROriginal Service LifeVERY POORM&amp;R EffectDo Nothing Curve Time/Traffic 13. Long-Life, Low-Maintenance Roads 14. Low-Emissions/Energy Construction and Maintenance Energy = fuel consumption = fossil fuels = emissions Greenhouse Gases (GHG): water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, CFC, other Carbon Footprint: measure of carbon dioxide and methane emissions expressed in CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent for 100 years global warming potential) 15. Source: The Environmental Road of the Future, Colas 2003 16. Carbon Footprint Categories: Cold M&amp;R strategies: emulsion-based seals, cold recycling, full-depth reclamation, soil stabilization, etc. Warm: warm mix asphalt, maintenance treatments with warm mix additive, etc. Hot: hot in-place recycling, hot mix asphalt, etc. Big Foot: portland cement concrete (due to the manufacturing of cement and steel) 17. Road Recycling - AsphaltStore for later use in: Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Crushed Miscellaneous Base (CMB)Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR) Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR) Full Depth Reclamation (FDR) 18. Road Recycling Portland Cement ConcreteStore for later use in: Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Crushed Miscellaneous Base (CMB)Rubblization: Break and Seat Crack and Seat 19. RAP, RCA Management Both concrete and asphalt are 100% recyclable Avoid contamination of RAP/RCA stockpiles by using good management practices: Use single-source stockpiles Separate stockpiles by size (fractionating) Ensure drainage and cover stockpiles to prevent excessive moisture Use low slope to prevent segregation More information: http://www.morerap.us/ http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/recycling/rca.cfm 20. Recyclable Import RAS: Recycled Asphalt Shingles Crumb Rubber from Waste Tires Blast Furnace Slag Coal Ash Silica Fume Others 21. Permeable Pavements Reduce stormwater runoff Filter pollutants from water Permeable pavements are also cool pavements when wet! More information: Pervious concrete: http://www.perviouspavement.org/ Porous asphalt: http://www.asphaltpavement.org/index.php?option=com_content&amp;view= article&amp;id=359&amp;Itemid=863 Permeable pavers: http://www.icpi.org/permeable 22. Source: A permeable paver demonstration, Austin's Ferry, Tasmania, Australia, J.J. Harrison, 2011 23. Cool Pavements Reduce the heat island effect by: Shading Increasing Solar Reflectance (Albedo) Painting/Coating low albedo materials Use high albedo materials Apply thin maintenance treatments with high albedo materials: e.g. microsurfacing and whitetopping Increasing Thermal Emittance Use permeable pavements, water retentive pavements More Info: http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/mitigation/pavements.htm 24. Quiet Pavements Reduce the tire-pavement noise Methods: Open-graded friction course asphalt (+ rubber) Diamond grinding concrete pavements Noise barriers, sound walls Lowered alignment Challenges: Texture wears off with time and needs maintenance/replacement 25. Source: Washington DOT Quieter Pavement Research, http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Business/materialslab/quieterpavement 26. Complete StreetsSource: Complete Streets, http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/completestreets/complete-streets-fundamentals/complete-streets-faq 27. Section 3ASPHALT RECYCLING IN-PLACE 28. In-Place Asphalt Recycling Techniques Milling Micro Milling Surface Recycling (Resurfacing) Remixing RepavingCold In-Place Recycling (CIR) Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR) Pulverization Mechanical Stabilization Bituminous Stabilization Chemical Stabilization 29. Cold Planing/Milling Process 30. Cold Planing Applications Remove existing asphalt concrete surface before overlay or for cold recycling (in-place or central plant) Correction of longitudinal profile and crossslopes Restore pavement smoothness or help achieve better smoothness upon resurfacing Restore surface friction (micro-milling) 31. CP Pattern Comparison Tool spacing and pattern, drum speed and advance rate, will influence the final milled pattern:Source: Milling for Smoothness, Eric Baker, Roadtec 2013, http://www.arra.org/index.php?option=com_docman&amp;task=doc_download&amp;gid=510&amp;Itemid=157 32. CP Equipment 33. CP Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI)VERY GOODFAIRCold PlaningPOORHot In-Place RecyclingGOODCold RecyclingFull Depth ReclamationVERY POORTime/Traffic 34. More CP Resources Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association, http://www.arra.org/presentatio ns/cold_planing.pdf 35. Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR): Remixing 36. Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR): Repaving 37. HIR Methods Recycling: add rejuvenating agent, no additive Remixing: add rejuvenating agent and additive: Virgin aggregate Asphalt cement Plant mix HMA Repaving: remixing + HMA overlay Stages: Single: up to 2 inch depth Multiple: up to 3 inch depth 38. HIR Applications Purpose: rejuvenate/renew/improve the asphalt concrete surface, up to 2-3 inches deep Use to address raveling, weathering, bleeding, other types of distress confined to the pavement surface. Will not mitigate structural problems Can be covered with chip seal or other thin maintenance treatment 39. HIR Equipment Heating units Milling/Scarifying unit Drying/Mixing unit Paver Rollers Rejuvenating Agent Admixture truckSource: Martec, http://martec.ca/2010/11/november-2010-ar2000-super-recycler-at-tradeshow/ 40. HIR TrainSource: Brian Hansen, Dustrol, Inc. 41. HIR Equipment 42. HIR Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI)VERY GOODFAIRCold PlaningPOORHot In-Place RecyclingGOODCold RecyclingFull Depth ReclamationVERY POORTime/Traffic 43. More HIR Resources Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 Construction Inspection Checklist #11 Hot In-Place Asphalt Recycling Application, FP2 and FHWA http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/ppcl00.cfm a second edition of this checklist is available in print and will soon be available online. Caltrans Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG) Volume I Flexible Pavement Preservation Second Edition, Chapter 13: InPlace Recycling, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/MTA_GuideVolume1Fl exible.html Hot In Place Asphalt Recycling, Brian Hansen, Dustrol, Inc., http://www.savemyroad.com/cir_hir/files/Ho t-In-Place-Asphalt-Recycling.pdf 44. HIR Construction Checklist Contents Document Review Project Review Materials Checks Preconstruction Meeting Pavement Preparation Equipment Inspections Weather Requirements Mix Design Traffic Control Project Inspection Opening to Traffic Common Problems and Solutions 45. Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) 46. CIR Applications Restore the structural integrity of the top 2-4 inches of the asphalt concrete Cover with HMA overlay or thin maintenance treatment Effective in treating distress confined to the pavement surface as well as thermal cracking. CIR is generally softer than HMA and may delay reflective cracking. 47. CIR Equipment Tankers Milling machine(s) Crushing and screening units Mixer Paver Rollers 48. Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR) 49. CIR Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI)VERY GOODFAIRCold PlaningPOORHot In-Place RecyclingGOODCold RecyclingFull Depth ReclamationVERY POORTime/Traffic 50. More CIR Resources Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 Construction Inspection Checklist #12 Cold In-Place Asphalt Recycling Application, FP2 and FHWA http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/ppcl 00.cfm a second edition of this checklist is under final review by ARRA and FHWA. Caltrans Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG) Volume I - Flexible Pavement Preservation Second Edition, Chapter 13: In-Place Recycling, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/MTA_Guid eVolume1Flexible.html 51. Full Depth Reclamation (FDR) 52. FDR Methods Pulverization Stabilization Mechanical = with aggregate or RAP Bituminous = with emulsified or foamed asphalt Chemical = with cement or other pozzolanic materials No. of Passes: Single pass Multiple pass 53. FDR Application Restore the structural integrity of the pavement over the entire treated depth Produce a uniform, stabilized, crack-free material by mixing asphalt concrete with underlying materials Cover with thin maintenance treatment, asphalt concrete or other surfacing material. 54. FDR Equipment 55. FDR with Emulsified Asphalt 56. Grading and Compaction 57. FDR Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI)VERY GOODFAIRCold PlaningPOORHot In-Place RecyclingGOODCold RecyclingFull Depth ReclamationVERY POORTime/Traffic 58. More FDR Resources Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 FDR Construction Checklist, PRRC FHWA ARRA available in print, it will be soon available online Full Depth Reclamation, ARRA: http://www.arra.org/presentations/fulldepth_reclamation.pdf 59. Section 4IMPLEMENTATION 60. Green Up! Use a pavement management system Include sustainable maintenance and rehabilitation strategies in the PMS (see article in August 2013 APWA Reporter) Keep the PMS data up to date Add or include a pavement preservation program Define pavement preservation triggers/criteria Establish default frequency for preservation treatments 61. Green Up! Manage your resources better: Even when damaged, pavements have value: aggregate, asphalt, cement, steel, etc. Use RAP/RCA best management practices Reuse materials as much as possible Require minimum three design/rehabilitation alternatives for each project of which at least one should specifically address sustainability 62. Green Up! Dont forget the 4 Rs: Right treatment, Right pavement, Right time, Right contractor. Learn more about sustainability and green rating systems for pavements: LEED/Green Building Council Greenroads Invest Green Up 63. Green Up Software application to compare pavement rehabilitation alternatives in terms of sustainability; not a rating system; Under development at Cal Poly Pomona; Includes: Materials Technologies Surface Properties Life vs. Cost Analysis 64. Green Up: Materials 65. Green Up: Technologies 66. Green Up: Surface Properties and Life/Cost 67. Green Up: Alternative ComparisonMill and FillMill, CIR and Overlay 68. Thank you Dragos Andrei, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Director, Pavement Recycling and Reclaiming Center CAL POLY POMONA dandrei@prrcenter.org www.PRRCenter.org </p>

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