static and current electricity advanced physical science

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  • Slide 1
  • Static and Current Electricity Advanced Physical Science
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  • Static Electricity Static Electricity = electric charge at REST on an object remember static means not moving If something has static electricity, it means there an EXCESS or LACK of electrons (e-) Examples: Clothes clinging when removed from dryer Lightning (before the strike) Your charged finger after walking on carpet
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  • The Atom Normally, atoms are electrically neutral Each atom has the same number of electrons (negative) as protons (positive) Electrons are whirling about, far away from the nucleus and can be removed from the atom by FRICTION!
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  • Charge by FRICTION When certain materials are rubbed together, electrons are transferred from 1 surface to another. The blue balloon rubbed against sweater is charged Excess e- = Negative Charge Lack of e- = Positive Charge Like charges repel Unlike charges attract
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  • Charge by Conduction Conduction =e- move from 1 object to another by DIRECT CONTACT Charging an electroscope shows conduction Electroscope After charging, the metal leaves have same charge and repel
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  • Charge by induction Charges in an uncharged object are rearranged without direct contact with the object The negative charges on the yellow balloon make a section of the wall have a positive charge. Electrons in the wall are repelled by and move away from the balloon
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  • Induction Example 2 Lightning The negative charge at the bottom of the cloud INDUCES a positive charge on the ground
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  • Static Discharge When a surface has acquired a strong negative charge, the extra e- may jump to a neutral or positive object The jump of e- gives a spark Spark= a rapid movement of a # of e- through the air Ex: lightning
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  • Current Electricity Current electricity is the flow of electric charges through a wire or other conductor. Current flows from high voltage to low voltage. Current only occurs when there is a difference in voltage. Current flows from positive to negative.
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  • More about Current Current: Current: the flow of electrons through a conductor. Current is measured in amperes (amps or A) Symbol used for current in equations is I. Why I ? Originally current was referred to as electrical Intensity by French scientist, Andr-Marie Ampre. Measured using an ammeter
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  • Notes - continued Two types of electric current: AC & DC No, this is not the rock band!! AC alternating current the electrons are changing direction rapidly. (household current in U.S. current alternates 120 times per second) DC direct current the electrons flow in only one direction (ex. = battery)
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  • Important Terms Current: Current: the flow of electrons through a conductor. Conductor: a material through which electric charges can flow. Resistance: opposition to the flow of electrons
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  • Notes about Resistance Resistance (R) is measured in ohms. Named for Georg Ohm German scientist who developed mathematical descriptions of electrical circuits. The symbol for ohms = (Greek letter omega) A light bulb offers resistance to flow of e- Your skin also offers resistance to flow of e- Wet skin offers less resistance than dry OR
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  • More on Resistance Resistance depends on: Thickness and/or length of the wire Thicker wire = less resistance How well the material conducts electric current Temperature In general for metals, as temperature increases, resistance increases (direct relationship)
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  • Voltage Voltage: Push that causes electric charges to flow Also known as potential difference Electrons flow from high potential to low potential The difference in voltage is what drives the current through a resistor
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  • More about Voltage Without voltage, there will be no electric current. Voltage is measured in volts (V) Measured using a voltmeter
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  • Ohms Law I = Current (amps or A) V = Voltage (volts of V) R = Resistance (ohms or ) Instead of learning different formulas for current, voltage and electricity, you can use this single formula to find ANY of them Use Ohms Law Triangle to solve
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  • Reminders about Circuits There are 2 Types of Circuits: Series one path for the electrons to travel If one light goes out, they all go out.
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  • Circuits (Cont) Parallel more than one path for the electrons to travel If one light goes out, the remainder of the lights remain lit. Dont you hope your house is wired this way?
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  • Play with Circuits t-construction-kit-dc t-construction-kit-dc
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  • Use Ohms Law in a Circuit Given that you have a 12 volt battery and a lightbulb that offers 3 ohms ( ) of resistance, what is the amount of current (I) going through the wire? Solve 12V = I*3 I = 12V/3 I = 4 amps
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  • Electrical Power Rate at which electrical energy is converted to other forms of energy. Measured in watts. Formula: P = Power V = Voltage I = Current
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  • Electric Energy Electric energy = P = power (in kilowatts) T = time in hours Electric energy is measured in kilowatt hours. 1 kWh = 1000 watts of power for 1 hour of time Convert watts to kilowatts by dividing by 1000 (dimensional analysis) Ex: 220 watts * 1 kilowatt/1000 watts = 0.22 kW
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  • Calculating Electrical Energy Cost From the HW the other night A room was lighted with three 100 watt bulbs for 5 hrs per day. If the cost of electricity was $0.09 per kWh, how much would be saved by switching to 60 watt bulbs? Step 1: You are using 3 bulbs, so figure out how many watts in 3 bulbs 100 watts*3 = 300 watts 60 watts*3= 180 watts
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  • Calculating Energy Cost (cont) Comparing 300 watts vs 180 watts Step 2: Convert 300 watt and 180 watt to kilowatt (divide by 1000) 300 watt * 1 kilowatt/1000 watt = 0.3 kW 180 w * 1 kw/1000 w = 0.18 kW Step 3: Find the difference in kW used 0.3 kW -0.18 kW = 0.12 kW
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  • Calculating Energy Cost (cont) Step 4: determine energy by multiplying by the hours used 0.12 kW * 5 h= 0.6 kWh Step 5: What is the cost? $0.09 per kWh 0.6 kWh * $0.09/kWh= $0.054 or 5.4 (5) cents