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PUBLIC AND SPECIAL LIBRARIES IN JAPANAuthor(s): Mari Itoh, Shigeyuki Kohzuma, Yasuko Nagai and Yasuko NagaSource: Fontes Artis Musicae, Vol. 57, No. 3, Special Topic: Public Libraries (July-September2010), pp. 309-315Published by: International Association of Music Libraries, Archives, and Documentation Centres(IAML)Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/23512153 .Accessed: 15/06/2014 06:09Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp .JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. .International Association of Music Libraries, Archives, and Documentation Centres (IAML) is collaboratingwith JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Fontes Artis Musicae.http://www.jstor.org This content downloaded from 194.29.185.77 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:09:21 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=iamlhttp://www.jstor.org/action/showPublisher?publisherCode=iamlhttp://www.jstor.org/stable/23512153?origin=JSTOR-pdfhttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsphttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspPUBLIC AND SPECIAL LIBRARIES IN JAPAN Mari Itoh, Shigeyuki Kohzuma, Yasuko Nagai1 English Abstract Music collections in general public libraries in Japan consist primarily of audiovisual materials, most of which are gifts from local collectors. In most cases, music librarians are absent in both general public libraries and national libraries. The Special and Public Libraries Committee (SPLC) of the Music Library Association of Japan plays a central role for significant music information services for the public. Distinctive services provided by the member libraries of the SPLC are briefly described in this article. Public music libraries in Japan have some difficulties in their management due to the introduc tion of a designed manager system into public institutions in 2003. The system seems to pose a se vere obstacle for public libraries in order to plan long-range programs and services. At the same time, library staff cannot develop their skills as an expertise. These are urgent matters to be solved as well as examining outsourced human resources, maintenance of short-lived AV equipments, and complicated copyright issues. French Abstract Au Japon, les collections musicales au sein des bibliothques publiques consistent essentiellement en matriel audiovisuel donn par des collectionneurs locaux. Dans la plupart des cas, il n'y a pas de bibliothcaires de musique qui travaillent pour des mdiathques publiques, ni pour des bibliothques nationales. La Special and Public Libraries Committee (SPLC) de la Music Library Association au Japon joue un rle central dans les services d'information musicale significatifs. Cet article dcrit les services proposs par les bibliothques membres de SPLC. Les bibliothques publiques proposant des documents musicaux au Japon rencontrent des difficults de gestion dues l'introduction d'un systme de gestion ddi aux institutions publiques en 2003. Ce systme semble reprsenter un obstacle important pour les bibliothques publiques qui souhaitent projeter des programmes et des services sur le long terme. En mme temps, l'quipe se trouve freine dans le dveloppement de ses comptences. Ce sont des faits rsoudre urgemment, ainsi que d'envisager l'emploi de personnel en sous-traitance, la maintenance du matriel audio visuel de courte dure et des dbats sur le droit d'auteur. German Abstract Musikbestnde in Japans ffentlichen Bibliotheken bestehen meistens aus von rtlichen Sammlern gestifteten AV-Materialien. berwiegend gibt es auch kein musikbibliothekarisches Fachpersonal. Das Komitee fr ffentliche Bibliotheken und Sonderbestnde der Japanischen Vereinigung der Musikbibliotheken nimmt eine zentrale Rolle bei der Versorgung der ffentlichkeit mit Musik information ein. Der Artikel beschreibt die besonderen Dienstleistungen, die die Mitgliedsbibli otheken erbringen. Die Einfhrung eines speziellen Managementsystems fr ffentliche Institutionen im Jahr 2003 fhrte insbesondere in ffentlichen Musikbibliotheken zu erheblichen Problemen. Das System 1. Mari Itoh is Associate Professor in the Department of Human Informatics, Aichi Shukutoku University, Nagoya, Japan; Shigeyuki Kohzuma is Acting Director, Min-on Music Museum, Tokyo, Japan; Yasuko Nagai is Chief Librarian, Tokyo Bunka Kaikan, library, Tokyo, Japan. 309 This content downloaded from 194.29.185.77 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:09:21 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp310 FONTES ARTIS MUSICAE 57/3 verhindert dort die Planung langfristiger Programme und Dienstleistungen. Gleichzeitig knnen die Bibliotheksangestellten ihr Fachwissen nicht erweitern. Diese drngenden Probleme mssen ebenso gelst werden wie die der Ausgliederung von Personal, der Erhaltung von kurzlebiger AV-Ausstattung und des Urheberrechts. Japanese Abstract AV. . . .2003 . AV . Music collections in general public libraries It is true that a public library is a suitable place to find music sources for amateur mu sicians and general public who are interested in music. There are 3,126 public libraries in Japan (fiscal year 2008). The percentage of distribution of town public libraries is 52.4%. However, there are few public music libraries in Japan, as explained in the next section. Therefore, in this article the authors discuss both public and special libraries of music that provide useful music information services in Japan. Audiovisual materials are one of the valuable collections in general public libraries in Japan that draw people's attention to the libraries. About 90% of these libraries hold AV ma terials. Most collection policies for music AV materials emphasize the selections of works written by major composers or played by popular performers, major music-award winning works, and Japanese folk music. However, practices in the libraries do not always follow their collection policies. The libraries have to make their own efforts to raise the circulation of AV materials, as that directly influences to their budgets for the next fiscal year. To that end, the libraries may have to select popular items for their users regardless of their policies, so that they tend to have Japanese popular music and/ or foreign popu lar music in almost half of their collections. Western art music accounts for about 26% of the total collections. Some governmental policies such as "Implementation of the New Courses of Study" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) may also influence the selection of materials. Most of the special music collections held in general public libraries are often gifts from local collectors. The collections are of traditional performing arts, and/ or music by a per son in connection with the place where the libraries located. In many cases these gifts are AV materials. Kanagawa Prefectural Library is one of the examples of an excellent jazz CD collection that is exclusively consisted of donations from a critic living in the area. Some libraries put the texts of Japanese classic literature and the images of nishiki'e, a colored woodblock print, on their websites. These resources often include music. Yet it is problematic to access to these websites unless one understands Japanese. This content downloaded from 194.29.185.77 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:09:21 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspPUBLIC AND SPECIAL LIBRARIES IN JAPAN 311 Contrary to AV materials, we do not have accurate Statistical data on music scores in public libraries, because they are counted as books. Printed music materials are inter shelved with books according to a gnral classification scheme. This often makes it dif ficult for users to find right materials in a quick and painless way. Librarians working in gnral public libraries are not subject-specific staff, even though they need to answer technical reference questions in a certain discipline including music. In fact, public librarians are frequently asked questions such as holding information of music scores and sound recordings, publication information containing a certain piece of music, work title of music corresponding to some lyrics, and so on. In addition, they need to know updated music copyright information to provide music information appropriately. Special and Public Iibraries Committee of Music Library Association of Japan The Special and Public Libraries Committee (SPLC) of the Music Library Association of Japan (MLAJ) plays a central rle in music information services for the public and aca dmie music communities. The committee was founded in 1994 with the objective to pro vide a network of these types of Iibraries separate from acadmie music Iibraries. It was expected to examine the way to expand the network to gnral public Iibraries that own music materials. For these purposes, the committee toured various special Iibraries both publicly- and privately-owned, and held three meetings a year to discuss the problems spe cific to public and special Iibraries. The committee's monumental achievement is the pub lication of Music Collections in Japan2 a resuit of the comprehensive nationwide survey on music collections in Japan. Nippon Kindai Ongakukan (Documentation Centre for Modem Japanese Music) was one of leading Iibraries to launch the SPLC and has played a significant rle in music in formation services. The Centre library had acquired and conserved modem and contem porary Japanese music including manuscripts of contemporary Japanese composers. Their collections consisted of 500,000 items of books on music, printed music and music manuscripts, sriais, AV materials, microforms, and concert programs. Regrettably the Centre was closed in March 2010 and ail holdings were transferred to Meiji Gakuin Uni versity Library. In the rest of this section, the authors introduce distinctive services of public and pri vate music Iibraries, most of which are prsent members of the SPLC. Numbers 1 to 4 be low are run by the public sector, and 5 to 7 are under private management. Information on collection and circulation policies of each library can be seen in the IAML Public Iibraries Branch's "LOOK-a-LIKE-LIBRARY-LOCATOR" project3. 1) Tokyo Bunka Kaikan (Tokyo Cultural Hall) Tokyo Bunka Kaikan opened in 1961 as the 500^ anniversary project to celebrate the foundation of Tokyo Metropolitan Government. The Hall is renowned for its fine acoustics suitable for classical music concerts. The collections of the Music Library include books 2...2002. The Special and Public Libraries Committee of Music Iibrary Association of Japan, ed. Tokyo, Music Library Association of Japan, 2002, 67 p. (in Japanese). 3. URL: http://www.iaml.info/activities/public_libraries/iaml_toolbox/look_a_like This content downloaded from 194.29.185.77 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:09:21 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp312 FONTES ARTIS MUSICAE 57/3 and journals on Western art music, Japanese traditional music and performing arts, printed music, and AV materials. The collection of the concert programs given at the Hall is unique. The Library has been organized by Tokyo Metropolitan Foundation for History and Culture with a couple of private companies since 2008. Most of staff are now part-time employees, who cannot develop their professional skills. The Library has a problem with maintaining non-current AV equipment in order to keep a certain level of services. 2) Aichi Prefectural Arts Promotion Service, Arts Library Aichi Prefectural Arts Promotion Service, Arts Library, founded in 1992, is located in the combined facilities with Art Museum, Theater and Cultural Information Center orga nized by Aichi prefecture, Nagoya. The Arts Library is the center of these activities and is only public library in Japan specialized in fine arts, architecture, and music. The users of the Library come from all over the country and are engaged in a wide variety of profes sions and include artists, musicians, dancers, scenario writers, music or art students, and researchers. Performers, theater staff, and audiences at concerts or exhibitions visit the Library, too. The Library collections are mainly printed music and CDs in classical music, which most of public libraries do not collect. The Library organizes exhibitions in con junction with the topics planned at the Museum and the Concert Halls. As the Library is strong in arts, they can meet the request to look for costumes used in operas by provid ing arts and ethnological documents and picture books on medieval era. Another example of their unique collections is seen in a reference service to respond the request for a list of scores whose covers were drawn by Yumeji Takehisa, who is one of famous artists in early 1900s for beautiful women works. 3) Re-cord Museum, Library The phonograph is considered one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century. The Re-cord Museum Library, located in Niikappu town, Hokkaido, has been distinguished in the special collection of 780,000 analog sound recordings, which were donated by the pub lic across the country. The Library gives information on the history of phonograph by dis playing the first manual cylindrical record players and 25 other record players, which rep resent the technological advancements made during the past 100 years. They own rare videos and DVDs as well as local collection, books and serials on music. 4) Kanazawa Phonograph Museum This Museum, located in Kanazawa city, holds 540 phonographs and over 30,000 SP4 discs. They hold daily sessions comparing the sound of phonographs invented by Edison with more technically advanced phonographs. They also organize concerts of various gen res from classical music to jazz. Lecture concerts using SP discs are regularly held at the Museum. 4. SP means Short-playing analog recording. This content downloaded from 194.29.185.77 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:09:21 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspPUBLIC AND SPECIAL LIBRARIES IN JAPAN 313 5) Min-on Music Museum, Library The Min-On Concert Association was founded in 1963 at the initiative of Daisaku Ikeda, President of Soka Gakkai International, to promote musical and cultural activities world wide. The Min-On Music Library, which specializes in Western art music, opened in Tokyo in 1974 for the public. They have valuable collections of rare books published from the early Meiji period (1868-1912), when Western art music was first introduced to Japan, to the present. They also have vintage sound recordings that are no longer available. The Library was recognized as an authentic museum by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government and officially registered with the current name of the Min-On Music Museum in 2003. The Museum exhibits classical pianos, mechanical musical instruments and various ethnic instruments. They also regularly conduct unique exhibitions and cul tural lecture series under various specific themes. As well, they have workshops for chil dren and trainings for curators. A part of their musical instrument collections is a rare collection of classic pianos, namely fortepianos, such as the "Strohm" (manufactured in 1793) and other representa tive instruments of that period. By adding the "Pisa" Harpsichord (manufactured in the 1580s) to their classic pianos collection, the full sweep of the keyboard instrument history from the sixteenth to the twentieth century can be viewed at a glance in the Museum. ILLUSTRATION 1 Classic piano room at the Min-on Museum This content downloaded from 194.29.185.77 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:09:21 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp314 FONTES ARTIS MUSICAE 57/3 6) Japan Choral Music Centre and Library The Centre was founded in 1979 in Tokyo under the auspices of the Japan Choral Association. The Japan Choral Centre and Library (JCMC) contributes to the dissemina tion of Japanese choral music and the music of foreign countries by developing their rich collections and planning exhibitions on various themes. Reflecting the library's international orientation, their permanent collection comprises a rich cross-section of works by predominant composers around the world especially from the middle of the 20th century. The library collects books, musical scores, sound recordings, and concert programs specific to this genre. 7) Miyagi Michio Memorial Hall Library Miyagi Michio is known as a composer of the masterpiece Haru no Umi (Spring Sea) for koto. He was a pioneer in this genre and introduced Western musical elements into Japanese music. This "father of modern Japanese music" was active in a variety of under takings even though he was blind since the age of eight. In addition to modifying and in venting koto instruments such as the 80-string koto, he was a distinguished performer and charmed people with his richly sensitive essays. The Miyagi Michio Memorial Hall, which honors Miyagi's achievements and his con tributions to the development of Japanese music, opened in 1978 and was the first mu seum in Japan devoted to a particular musician. The library collections include books, mu sic scores, CDs, LPs, and cassette tapes about Miyagi Michio and Japanese traditional music, especially sankyoku (played with koto, shamisen and shakuhachi). The Library publishes the Miyagi Michio Memorial Hall Annual Report. Their other publications in clude koto music catalogs, which are The World of Miyagi Michio / Mook (1993), Jiuta Soukyoku no Menjyouten Catalogue (1994), Kikkawa Library Catalogue (1997), Miyagi Michio's Musical Works Catalogue (1998). Challenges For Our Future Development In this article the authors did not mention the national libraries in Japan. This does not mean that they do not own music materials. The National Diet Library has an AV mate rials room that contains 290,000 analog sound recordings, 278,000 CDs, 81,000 videotapes and DVDs domestically distributed5. The room is organized as a part of the Electronic Resources Section. Musical scores are treated as books in the Library like other general public libraries. The Traditional Performing Arts Information Centre6 is another national information center related to traditional performing arts. The Centre library holds 230,000 books on traditional performing arts, documentary photos of performances, and nishiki'e. The Centre built a digital library, which contains textbooks and images on traditional performing arts, and performance notes from the national theatres. Like general public libraries, these national libraries do not have music librarians for their services specific to music and performing arts. This fact partly influences to the problem that the national libraries in Japan have not been able to play a key role in music information services. 5. URL: http://www.ndl.go.jp/en/service/tokyo/music/index.html (accessed 2010-02-21) 6. URL: http://www.ntj.jac.go.jp/english/index.html (accessed 2010-02-21) This content downloaded from 194.29.185.77 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:09:21 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspPUBLIC AND SPECIAL LIBRARIES IN JAPAN 315 Public libraries have another difficulty in their management. A designed manager sys tem was introduced to public institutions including libraries in 2003. This implies that many of library staff have been shifted to part-time employees of a private company, who are replaced in a short time. Tokyo Bunka Kaikan Library is an example of this. The sys tem seems to pose a severe obstacle for the library to plan a long-range programs and services. At the same time, library staff cannot develop their skills as an expertise. These are urgent matters to be solved as well as examining outsourced human resources, main tenance of short-lived AV equipment, and complicated copyright issues. This content downloaded from 194.29.185.77 on Sun, 15 Jun 2014 06:09:21 AMAll use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditionshttp://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspArticle Contentsp. 309p. 310p. 311p. 312p. 313p. 314p. 315Issue Table of ContentsFontes Artis Musicae, Vol. 57, No. 3, Special Topic: Public Libraries (July-September 2010), pp. 229-340Front MatterARE PUBLIC MUSIC LIBRARIES ON THE ROAD TO FULL DEMOCRACY? [pp. 229-235]THE FIRST HUNDRED YEARS OF MUSIC LIBRARIANSHIP AT THE SWEDISH ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC: 17711871 [pp. 236-249]L'AVENIR DE LA MUSIQUE DANS LES BIBLIOTHQUES PUBLIQUES FRANAISES OU DE LA DIFFICULT TROUVER UN MODLE DE SUBSTITUTION LA DISCOTHQUE DE PRT [pp. 250-258]ISSUES OF ACCESS: THE FUTURE OF MUSIC AUDIO PROVISION IN UK PUBLIC LIBRARIES [pp. 259-266]EXPLORING PUBLIC LIBRARY MUSIC COLLECTIONS THROUGH SOCIAL TECHNOLOGIES [pp. 267-274]SPECIAL COLLECTIONS IN THE BERGEN PUBLIC LIBRARY [pp. 275-279]KEEPING THE MUSIC ALIVE [pp. 280-284]MUSIC AT YOUR FINGERTIPS: MUSIC RESOURCES SEMINARS FOR SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS AND PUBLIC LIBRARIES [pp. 285-290]BOOMWHACKERS: A PUBLIC LIBRARY SERVICE FOR MUSIC TEACHERS IN THE PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM IN OSLO, NORWAY [pp. 291-295]VON MOZART-RALLYE BIS NOTENKOFFER: MUSIKSPEZIFISCHE ANGEBOTE DER STADTBIBLIOTHEK ESSEN FR SCHULEN, KINDERCHRE UND JUGENDENSEMBLES [pp. 296-302]PUBLIC LIBRARIES IN TURKEY [pp. 303-308]PUBLIC AND SPECIAL LIBRARIES IN JAPAN [pp. 309-315]REVIEWSReview: untitled [pp. 316-317]Review: untitled [pp. 317-319]Review: untitled [pp. 319-320]Review: untitled [pp. 320-321]Review: untitled [pp. 321-322]Review: untitled [pp. 322-325]Review: untitled [pp. 326-328]Review: untitled [pp. 328-330]Review: untitled [pp. 330-331]Review: untitled [pp. 331-333]Reprinted from "Forum Musikbibliothek"Review: untitled [pp. 333-334]Review: untitled [pp. 334-335]Review: untitled [pp. 335-335]Review: untitled [pp. 336-336]Back Matter

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