Sewage treatment by anaerobic bacterial digestion

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<p>PowerPoint Presentation</p> <p>Sewage Water Treatment- Anaerobic Bacterial Digestion Basma Sarfraz06.12.2013ContentIntroductionProcess overview of sewage treatment:Pre-treatmentPrimary TreatmentSecondary treatmentTertiary treatmentTypes of Bacteria used in water treatment:Aerobic bacteria Anaerobic bacteria Anaerobic Digestion Process:AdvantagesProduction and purification of by productsFurther ResearchesConclusion</p> <p>Sewage water treatmentObjectives:1. To reduce the volume by eliminating the liquid portion of the sludge. To alter the highly putrescible organic matter into relatively stable or inert organic and inorganic compounds; thus allowing water to separate more effortlessly. </p> <p>Sewage water treatment is basically the process of removing contaminants from wastewater either from residential or commercial establishments. These contaminants could be biological, chemical and physical.Nutrient availability highActivated Sludge is more Untreated water DischargeEnironmentWill pollute the receiving waterDistributionwater-borne diseases Colonies of bacteria are factories for the automatic production of the right enzyme for the biological reduction of any waste material, provided the selection of right bacteria to start with.</p> <p>EnzymesDegradation of organic matter and many chemical reactions.Precise design of the treatment plant:Maximum advantage of the bacterial activityEquate to lower costsAmplified capacityEnhanced quality of effluentFreedom from bad odorsInoculation of specifically cultured bacteriaUsing anaerobic digestion:Minimizes the amount of final sludge disposal- easy handling Although many sludge stabilization methods exist- remove hazardous by products.And it also furnishes a considerable power supply in the form of methane gas cost effective.BOD v/s CODBOD = Biochemical Oxygen Demand COD = Chemical Oxygen Demand BOD means the amount of oxygen (in mg/l) microorganisms like bacteria need to 'eat' the organic pollution (sugars, fat, proteins, ...). Note that not all pollution can be removed (eaten) by bacteria. COD is the amount of oxygen required to degenerate all pollution in a chemical way (by adding oxidizing agents and heating). In general with chemical destruction you can remove more pollution than with the biological way. BOD is actually the parameter to measure the amount of biodegradable organic matter in the treated water which is commonly determined by measuring the amount of oxygen necessary to degrade the organic matter in water. The stable primary sludge signifies suspended solids up to 40% to 60% present in the treated water signals the presence of 25% to 35% of BOD in the sewage. </p> <p>BOD uses and limitations: BOD testing has its widest application in measuring waste loadings of treatment plants, and in evaluating the efficiency of treatment processes. It is of limited use in industrial wastewaters containing heavy metal ions, cyanides, and other substances that may be toxic to the microorganisms.2hrz and 5 dayz5Process OverviewCentralized System</p> <p>Decentralized System</p> <p>1. Pre-treatmentRemoval of easily eliminated waste. i.e. large materialIt consists of two portions:</p> <p>Coarse screening: In which large materials are filtered e.g. rags, trash, bottles and log etc. To optimize solid waste removal, mesh screens or bar screens of various sizes may be used.Grid removal: Based on the velocity of the incoming waste water which is adjusted in such a way that the stones, sand, grit and broken glass are settled down. before they would clog or damage the pumps and pipes of primary treatment plant.2. Primary Treatment Schematic Diagram of Primary Treatment</p> <p>Quiescent basinOils / GreaseHeavy SolidsAir BlowersSkimmersSecondary TreatmentCompactLandfillsSewageTreated water comprises dissolved organic and inorganic solids.In the quiescent basin, the sewage is temporarily hold provided the removal of such particles through gravity principle in the sedimentation tank. This process allows the heavy solids to settle to the bottom forming sludge while the lighter components like oil, grease along with some solid particles to float to the surface. Then usually by the aid of the mechanical equipment this sludge is filtered and the rest of the liquid may be discharged directly or subjected to further treatments.Scum and Grease RemovalMostly skimmers do their job here, the small tank through which the sewage is passed, it removes and collects the fat and grease floating on the surface of such water. In the base of the tank, the air blowers may also be fixed to facilitate the recovery of the fat as froth. Aside from that, during the dewatering process, the surface area and drum slot is cleaned by hot water and scrappers. Such dewatered sludge is then compacted and eventually disposed into the landfill. </p> <p>83. Secondary treatment Secondary Clarifiers</p> <p>Fixed film systems: in it the bacteria grow on the filters, through which the treated water passes.Suspended growth system: In it the activated sludge is inoculated directly into water.BiogasCondensingHeatingIncinerateFertilizerPrimary TreatmentDisinfectantSludge Digestion:The disposal of sludge can takes place by various methods.1.It can be degraded using various microbes which sometimes may produce biogas, used in electricity generation processes. 2.It may be reused as a fertilizer after either condensing, heating or incinerate to disinfect it.</p> <p>94. Tertiary treatmentTreated water may comprises- organic materials- should be remove chemically or physically before discharging it. Sand filtrationPhosphorus elimination: Bioaccumulation by specific polyphosphate accumulating bacteria.Nitrogen elimination:LagooningAmmonia - highly toxic to aquatic biota. Biologically, ammonia can be eliminated through two processes:Nitrification Process: Ammonia is oxidized into nitrate. ( e.g. Brocadia anammoxidans )Denitrification Process: Nitrate is converted into the nitrogen gas. ( e.g. Thiobacillus denitrificans ) NitrifiersIn order to control the growth of algae nitrogen has to be removed from the water.and then released into the atmosphere directly..are anaerobic bacteria and is one of several oxidizers of ammonia. Nitrifiers include strains Nitrosomonas europaea as well as Nitrobacter hamburgensis.Biochemical oxygen demand or B.O.D is the amount of dissolved oxygen needed by aerobic biological organisms in a body of water to break down organic material present in a given water sample at certain temperature over a specific time period. The term also refers to a chemical procedure for determining this amount. This is not a precise quantitative test, although it is widely used as an indication of the organic quality of water.[1] The BOD value is most commonly expressed in milligrams of oxygen consumed per litre of sample during 5 days of incubation at 20 C and is often used as a robust surrogate of the degree of organic pollution of water.</p> <p>BOD can be used as a gauge of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment plants. It is listed as a conventional pollutant in the U.S. Clean Water Act.</p> <p>BOD is similar in function to chemical oxygen demand (COD), in that both measure the amount of organic compounds in water. However, COD is less specific, since it measures everything that can be chemically oxidized, rather than just levels of biologically active organic matter.</p> <p>10 4. Chemical treatment: </p> <p>5. Ultraviolet radiations: Kill bacteria- damage its genetic material. Kill endospores of bacteria- higher dosage. 6. Chlorination: More effective in killing bacteria than viruses. 7. Ozone treatment: More effective and environment friendly method to destroy viruses. And readily decomposes into oxygen without producing harmful byproducts.8. Carbon Adsorption: Elimination of resistance showing organic materials. Comprises a bed of activated carbon granules through which the treated water is passed. This process removes 98 percent of the remaining organic material.9. Odor control: Emission of hydrogen sulfide. Such water can process through carbon reactors, comprises chlorine, bio-slimes, or bioactive fluids which biologically trends to metabolize the noxious gases. Other methods include addition of calcium nitrate, iron salts and hydrogen peroxide.</p> <p>Alum, ferric chloride or limeAllow the clotting of the smaller particles to cluster into larger massesRemove via sedimentationwhich shows resistance during the biological treatment are eliminated by carbon adsorption from treated water.11 Types of Bacteria used in sewage treatment Bacteria categorize by the way they obtain energyAerobicAnaerobicFacultativeAerobic bacteria:Use the free oxygen present in the waste water.1. For the production of energy which they can use for growth and reproduction. 2. To degrade the pollutants in the wastewater. They are used in most new treatment plants where the oxygen has to be added mechanically to the wastewater through the use of aerators in the aerated section of the treatment plant. The range of the dissolved oxygen content should be kept between 3 and 5 MG/L, with a normal influent load of pollutants.</p> <p>Anaerobic bacteria:Proliferate in the absence of oxygen or without any dissolved oxygen. For the sake of respiration, anaerobic bacteria normally get the oxygen from their food source. Such process/digestion could be thermophilic (55 C) or mesophilic (36 C).12 Anaerobic Digestion ProcessMost common process to deal with the sewage sludge. </p> <p>Advantages of Anaerobic Systems:1. Low yield of sludge to be dewatered. 2. Low energy requirement high power blowers or aerators are excluded.3. Higher organic loading give significant treatment efficiencies in both BOD and COD concentrations removal.4. Alternative energy source methane rich biogas.5. High stability show great resistance under highly variable organic, thermal and hydraulic conditions.6. Less nutrient requirement far less.7. Lower functional costs</p> <p>The anaerobic process is bases on two main categories of bacteria:Acid formers: (Harsh)</p> <p>Methane formers: (Sensitive)</p> <p>anaerobic and facultative bacteriasolubilize organic figureshydrolysisalcohols and acidsFermentationstrict anaerobicalcohols, acids, carbon dioxide and hydrogen TransformMethaneAct Biogas- the rich source of energy: Uses :1. Directly burn within a gas engine and for cooking purposes.2. As fuel for blowers, electric generators, hot water boilers and pump engines. 3. During pretreatment, it can serve as fire incinerators to heat the influent sludge.4. To heat the digester influent on the site of its production.Solid Sludge: Fertilizer or soil conditioner:For the elevation of organic content in the soil. Such liquor cost-effectiveServe as alternative of chemical fertilizers to provide essential nutrients to the soil.Purification:Separated from other biogas constituents such as carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and excess moisture and purified.Removal of Hydrogen sulfide: By metal oxides- converting into insoluble salts.Removal of Carbon dioxide: By absorption via the chemicals- to reduce gas volume. Production:Most sensitive and slowest step. Requires specific conditions i.e. pH of 6.6-7.6 , pre-heating of the sewage waste . Further Researches:New Method Monitors Critical Bacteria in Wastewater Treatment:New technique has establish for the constant monitoring of the health of bacteria involved in the sewage treatment by using various sensors. The minor changes in chemistry regarding to bacterial health is detectable and produces results instantaneously without disrupting the biofilm, whereas conventional techniques time-consuming and required laborious analyses. Such method alarmed workers before bacteria are weaken or about to cease processing the sewage waste. So, this may fix the problem before the release of toxins into waterways. From the sewage, how well the bacteria are absorbing charged atoms, ions, or molecules is revealed by the sensor data. For example, in the case of nitrosomonas europaeaAs an early warning signals, the sick, poisoned and stressed bacterial biofilms start to release ions especially calcium and potassium. The problem regarding the uncontrolled flushing of untreated sewage into waterways is eliminated by the self-referencing procedure comprises the sensor which after every three seconds moves mechanically back and forth enabling the device to gather data from two locations instantaneously. The rapid and minor changes in the concentrations can also be easily detected by it by comparing the data derived from the same sensor from two different sites. The "superbug" methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) :MRSA is highly known for causing potentially fatal bacterial infections whom presence is detected in the treated water. But its presence can highly decreased. As MRSA strains exhibit a high level of resistance towards most antibiotics and comprises many virulence associated genes which remain alive unless they are subjected to the tertiary chlorination treatment, which eradicates almost all MRSA (up to 93%). This proposes that while from influent to effluent as sewage processing successfully eradicate MRSA and MSSA, but on the other perspective this could be the factor behind the boosted resistance towards antibiotics and enhanced virulence, chiefly where the chlorination treatment is not applied.Sewage Treatment Plants May Contribute to Antibiotic Resistance Problem:Possible public health alarms for sewage treatment plants are elevated as further researches are done. Because the chlorination treatment is widely used now, so further findings are also needed side by side to estimate the possibilities of presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in treated sewage water. Hazardous of all is the fact that even the most high-tech water treatment center would be a significant source of antibiotic resistance genes in the water channels.Using Recycled Waste Sewage Treatment Plant Water for Irrigating Purposes- enhanced resistance towards bacteria :It is now becoming the common practice in the world, to do irrigation by the treated water from the sewage treatment plants. Due to which rapid evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria occurs responsible of the outburst of thousands of harmful diseases each year. A fairly large section of antibiotics taken by a person, does not metabolize properly and through urine or feaces, pass out in the sewage from the body, where it to the sewage treatment plant. These plants are not capable enough to completely eliminate such antibiotics like ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and sulfonamide and probably becoming the source of lavishness of such bacteria and their genes.Fighting Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria by Tre...</p>