serving culturally and linguistically diverse learners: strategies for the school psychologist
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DESCRIPTIONServing Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners: Strategies for the School Psychologist. Presenter: Date: Location: Duration: 7.5 hours. Objectives. Participants will identify ways to strengthen collaboration between the school and family. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Presenter:Date:Location:Duration: 7.5 hoursServing Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Learners: Strategies for the School Psychologist *
ObjectivesParticipants will identify ways to strengthen collaboration between the school and family.Participants will determine appropriate forms of collaboration, instruction, intervention and assessment for ELLs.Participants will distinguish and compare the backgrounds of ELLs.*
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*Language Acquisition Anticipation GuideRead the following statements about Language Acquisition, then mark Agree or Disagree
________Children learn a language by imitation and repetition.
________The process by which a student learns a second language is very different to how the first language was learned.
________A controlled language environment is the best place for language acquisition/learning to occur, an uncontrolled environment is non-conducive to language learning.
________Oral language proficiency (speaking ability) is a good predictor of academic success.
________Research shows that it takes 1-4 years to achieve sufficient fluency in academic English.
*Answer #1 Children learn a language by imitation and repetition.Disagree. Children seldom use imitation or repetition, generally only to acquire isolated words. Children are unconsciously acting as little scientist, taking in a large quantity of language and organizing it into patterns and categories. Two types of evidence illustrate this process: overgeneralizations of rules, such as when a child says go-ed for went shows that the child is unconsciously constructing rules for the past tense, but has not yet learned the exceptions; and childrens unique utterances, in which children generate sentences that they have never heard, show that they are constructing meaning on patterns and rules, not imitation or repetition.
*Answer #2 The process by which a student learns a second language is very different to how the first language was learned.
Disagree. The processes are similar, which suggest that especially for young learners, a language-rich classroom where ELLs are exposed to natural language use and good language models will facilitate acquisition. Older children and adults also acquire language, but in addition, they can supplement this process with conscious learning and cognitive faculties.
*Answer #3 A controlled language environment is the best place for language acquisition/learning to occur, an uncontrolled environment is non-conducive to language learning.
Disagree. Naturally occurring language acquisition takes place in an uncontrolled environment; placing a child in an artificially-controlled language environment may actually impede natural acquisition. For example, ELLs taught to read using highly adapted texts have difficulty transitioning to mainstream texts because the clues that they have learned to attend to are not the same.
*Answer #4 Oral language proficiency (speaking ability) is a good predictor of academic success.
Disagree. Oral language proficiency, especially for non-academic communication, is not a good predictor of academic success. Saville-Troike (1984) found that knowledge of academic, content-vocabulary was the best predictor; other predictors included opportunities to discuss academic concepts in their native language, to use language in academic tasks including, writing, with study skills, and literacy skills in the native language.
*Answers #5 Research shows that it takes 1-4 years to achieve sufficient fluency in academic English.
Disagree. Research shows that it often takes as long as five to seven years to achieve sufficiently fluency in academic English to compete on par with native-speaking students. It is more difficult for students with poor prior schooling, high mobility, less exposure to rich language and literacy experience in their native language or in English, and in schools which are less supportive of bilingualism and biculturalism.
ELL Placement ProcessHome Language SurveyScheduleSocial History InventoryCultureGrams or Ciafactbook
SchedulePlanned Instruction in Academic content areas (content area classes)The language instructional program must also provide ELLs with meaningful, comprehensible access to instruction in all content areas.The academic standards and must be incorporated in planned instruction for ELLs by all teachers. Students with LEP must receive instruction the same as they would receive instruction for other curricular areas. ESL classes must be part of the daily schedule and thoughtfully. planned from the administrative level so that students are not removed from other content classes to receive ESL instruction. Guidelines to consider when planning direct instruction of ESL: Entering (level 1) / Beginning (level 2) students: 2 hours Developing (level 3): 1-2 hours Expanding (level 4): 1 hour Bridging (level 5): up to 1 hour or support dictated by student need *
*My Five Values- Refugee Simulation ActivityInstructions:Have participants write 5 of things that they value most in life on 5 separate squares of paper. Each Square will hold a value. For Example: Health, Education, Spirituality, Family, etc. Have participants place the squares on a surface in front of them, writing side facing up.
Scenario:You wake up on a typical Monday morning and brew a pot of coffee. As you are sitting down to eat breakfast you turn on the television. The television is broadcasting that your government has been toppled. You are upset, but are reassured by the government that some changes will occur, but things are expected to go on as normal. As few weeks pass and your government announces again through the media that all individuals will be losing one of their rights. PLEASE TEAR UP ONE OF YOUR VALUES. You are surprised, but you are able to continue on with relative success. Little changes are starting to be noticed.A couple of nights later, you are woken by pounding at your door. Four military soldiers break down your door and order you to hand over two of your values- immediately! PLEASE QUICKLY TAKE AWAY TWO OF YOUR VALUES, YOU CANNOT PONDER OVER THIS, YOU DONT HAVE TIME, AND YOU NEED TO PUT THOSE TWO VALUES OUT OF YOUR SIGHT IMMEIDATLY. YOU HAVE TO LEAVE THEM BEHINDNow you are on the move you have left your house, your town, to seek safety. You are fleeing. You travel on foot, seeking refuge with family and friends. Food and shelter is limited. Along the way you have to trade in another one of your values to stay alive and safe. PLEASE HAVE YOUR NEIGHBOR TAKE AWAY ONE OF YOUR VALUES FROM YOU.You finally reach the entrance of the refugee camp. Others who have had similar experiences are also lining up to enter the camp. You register and walk through the gate, in your hand is your last remaining value. It is battered and worn, but you clench to it tightly it is the only remaining reminder of what life used to be.(Closing statement) So now you know what many of our families (students) feel when they walk through our doors, they have many times had experienced tremendous loss and are very resilient people. Empathy is key to the building of a positive and successful relationship.ReflectionAsk group to share what they have remaining. Inquire on what it felt like to make the decision to take away values, to have to select and choose. How did it feel to have someone choose for you? What did they gain from this experience?
*Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
Experts such as Jim Cummins differentiate between social and academic language acquisition. Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) are language skills needed in social situations. It is the day-to-day language needed to interact socially with other people. English language learners (ELLs) employ BIC skills when they are on the playground, in the lunch room, on the school bus, at parties, playing sports and talking on the telephone. Social interactions are usually context embedded. They occur in a meaningful social context. They are not very demanding cognitively. The language required is not specialized. These language skills usually develop within six months to two years after arrival in the U.S.
*Cognitive Academic Language ProficiencyCALP refers to formal academic learning. This includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing about subject area content material. This level of language learning is essential for students to succeed in school. Students need time and support to become proficient in academic areas. This usually takes from five to seven years. Recent research (Thomas & Collier, 1995) has shown that if a child has no prior schooling or has no support in native language development, it may take seven to ten years for ELLs to catch up to their peers. Academic language acquisition isn't just the understanding of content area vocabulary. It includes skills such as comparing, classifying, synthesizing, evaluating, and inferring. Academic language tasks are context reduced. Information is read from a textbook or presented by the teacher. As a student gets older the context of academic tasks becomes more and more reduced.
What Are Accommodations?An accommodation to the curriculum do not change the content (i.e., social studies) nor the concept difficulty (i.e., compare and contrast the causes of the Revolutionary War).Instead, an accommodation changes the input and/or output method used by the teacher and/or student related to the instructional outcome (Friend &