Challenging Assumptions: Culturally & Linguistically Responsive Instruction

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<p> 1. Challenging Assumptions Culturally Responsive Instruction for Diverse Learners Dr. Catherine Collier www.crosscultured.com catherine@crosscultured.com 2. Percent of K-12 ELL 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 3. HS Completion Rates 2006-2012 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Completion four years after enrollment White 06 White 12 Black 06 Black 12 Hispanic 06 Hispanic 12 AmerIndian 06 AmerIndian 12 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 4. Percent Scoring Proficient on State Math &amp; Language Arts Assessments 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% California Texas Florida Washington Oregon Migrant Students All Students Low-Income Students 5. Behavior Suspensions in Preschool 2011-2012 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Black NonBlack Enrollment Suspensions 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 6. 2014 Teachers in US Schools 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 White NonWhite Female NonFemale 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 7. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 5.80% 2.50% .6% 12.90% 4.40% .10% LD EBD AS NonELL ELL Disproportionality WA 8. Disproportionality ASD 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Am Ind/AK Nat Asian Black Hispanic Nat HI/Pac Isl Two or more White District Enrollment LD Autism 9. Texas ELL 10. Texas IEP 11. Definitions The concept of things that particular people use as models of perceiving, relating, and interpreting their environment. Difficulty in perceiving and manipulating patterns in the environment, whether patterns of sounds, symbols, numbers, or behaviors. The process by which individuals perceive, relate to, and interpret their environment. Culture CognitionLearning Disability 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 12. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved What we know We need to know more than what works.. We need to know what works with WHOM 13. The role of culture Educators have become increasingly aware in recent years of the central role that culture plays in learning and teaching. Teachers and children bring to the classroom values about education, work habits, interaction norms, and ways of knowing that were learned in the home and community. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 14. Culture and teaching Neither teachers nor children leave their cultures at the classroom door. It is, therefore, imperative that teachers gain greater awareness of how their culture affects their teaching behaviors, and how the intersection of diverse cultures can impact classroom dynamics and outcomes. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 15. A definition of culture Culture is what people know, what they do, and what they make and use. Everything we do is influenced by our culture. Culture pervades our ways of thinking, behaving, and believing. How we spend our time, where we work, who we visit, and what we do for fun are all affected by culture. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 16. Culture is always both (1) explicitthat which people can describe, such as foods, festivals, dress and (2) implicit or tacit - that which people know and do unconsciously and would have trouble describing. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 17. Explicit culture Explicit culture is easier to see and talk about. People can describe what kinds of food they cook, their holidays, their dances, their religion, their kinship relations, and the cultural rules for appropriate behavior among kinsfolk. Tacit cultural knowledge, which remains hidden, is harder to uncover. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 18. Tacit cultural knowledge Our culture has a large body of shared knowledge that people learn and use. Although tacit cultural knowledge is hidden from view, it is of fundamental importance because we all use it constantly to generate behavior and interpret our own and others experience. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 19. Culture is the human form of adaptation to the environment. People all around the world have developed customary tasks, activities and tools that enable them to utilize the available resources. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 20. Culture is Diverse Cultural diversity is the result of differences in environments, historical symbolism in human life. People in all societies pattern of facing change and the importance of face similar challenges but have many different cultural solutions to the types of problems. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 21. Culture is Dynamic Cultures are constantly changing through inventions, improvement and borrowing from other societies. For example, all of these processes have influenced the development of various means of economic exchange. Many different forms of money function in a wider range of cultural environments. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 22. Culture is Symbolic People live in a world of symbols. A symbol is any object or action to which meaning is attached. Members in a society share those symbols which may have a profound impact on behavior. The meaning and importance of ones society symbols may not be obvious to members of other groups. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 23. Members of the dominant culture (Anglos in the United States, for example), often believe that they do not have a culture. Culture is considered something that belongs to members of minority cultural groups and people of other countries. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 24. Reading Reading is based on symbols and symbolic relationships between sounds, symbols, meaning, and understanding. Reading is an example of a cultural activity. Reading depends on many cultural artifacts. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 25. Know yourself, know your students Know your culture, the culture you bring to teaching Understand how your culture fits into the culture of the larger society Be aware of the culture of the school and how this impacts your CLD students Be aware of the context you create in your classroom 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 26. Know Your Students Know the individuals qualities, interests, aspirations, and areas for growth Know the sociocultural contexts the student brings to learning, and how s/he reacts to the instructional contexts of the school and your classroom 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 27. Know your students Effective teaching involves activating the conceptual frameworks that children already have and building on them to expand the childrens knowledge and introduce new concepts. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 28. Reflective teaching Good teaching involves an ongoing process of self- reflection, including critical examination of your culture (ethnic, class, regional, religious, national), your assumptions about your students, and your role as a teacher. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 29. Self-reflection helps you to: Be aware of the assumptions made about the knowledge and experience by you, your students, and the mandated curriculum you are implementing; Be clear about the cultural values being transmitted through you via the curriculum and your pedagogical practices; and Be cognizant of your impact as a human being on the development of the children or youths in your care. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 30. Reminder All students do not share the experiences and background knowledge that teachers, textbooks, and curriculum standards may assume. Children from culturally and linguistically different backgrounds have different experiences and knowledge than mainstream teachers and children. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 31. Become aware of the contexts shaping CLD student learning Knowing your students involves becoming familiar with the sociocultural contexts that help shape students ways of learning. It also involves understanding the dynamic relationship between group culture and individual difference. Individualizing curriculum and instruction for CLD students is a critical component of the adaptation process. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 32. Be aware of cultural productions Sometimes it is easier to understand students in terms of group attributes. But individuals are constantly negotiating their identity and their culture within their peer groups and their community culture is not static. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 33. Cultural productions Individuals create their own cultural norms that often challenge the status quo. At the same time, there are pressures on the individual to conform to the culture, both to the minority group culture and to the dominant mainstream culture. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 34. Cultural productions School personnel need to change their perceptions of culture, from something that is shared by all students from the same ethnic or historical background to something that is actively constructed by the individual in a given social setting. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 35. What can teachers do about cultural productions? 1. Get to know each student as an individual; 2. Understand why the student accepts and rejects the various aspects of the schools culture that he or she does; 3. Work with her students to transform those aspects to the social and academic setting that she believes are hindering their successful growth and development; and 4. Help students learn to question and explore their own reasons for resisting and conforming in the ways that they do. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 36. Krashens Critical Elements for Language Acquisition 1. Provide Comprehensible Input in Target Language 2. Lower the Affective Filter 3. Maintain Subject Matter Education 4. Maintain and Develop Students Base Language 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 37. Growth in Native Born LEP 40% 40% 20% First Generation Second Generation Third + Generation 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 38. The Deadly Plateau Texts are frequently at i + 10, not i + 1 Growth in reading and academic achievement levels off Motivation decreases 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 39. LD Behaviors SLA Behaviors Difficulty following directions Difficulty following directions in English Difficulty with phonological awareness Difficulty distinguishing between unfamiliar sounds Slow to learn sound/symbol Confusion with sound/symbol correspondence in English Difficulty remembering sight words Difficulty remembering sight words when unfamiliar with meaning Difficulty retelling a story in sequence May understand more than can say in English 40. So what can teachers do about language transition? Simplify language of instruction Utilize frequent comprehension checks Allow for collaborative learning and discussion in primary language when appropriate Break lessons/information into smaller chunks Provide hands-on activities and concrete examples Use visual aides/physical clues Provide outlines and graphic organizers to stress important concepts and facilitate note- taking Proximity seating w/limited distractions Provide specific and immediate feedback Provide page numbers for answer locations Permit the use of bilingual dictionaries or electronic translating device Provide simplified study guides w/answers in advance of unit or lesson Utilize resources in the students first language 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 41. More Instructional Accommodations Allow student to edit or revise after re-teaching when appropriate Provide a daily or weekly syllabus of class and homework assignments Give alternate homework or class assignments suitable for the students linguistic ability Extend time for assignment completion when necessary Allow student an opportunity to give oral responses to be recorded by teacher or aide Utilize alternate reading assignments/materials at the students reading level Orient student to expectations through models and rubrics Substitute a hands-on activity or use of different media for written activity Shorten length, not content, of assignment Permit the use of bilingual dictionaries or electronic translating device 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 42. Acculturation Heightened Anxiety Inattention Confusion in Locus of Control Withdrawal Silence/unresponsiveness Response Fatigue Code-switching Distractibility Resistance to Change Disorientation Stress Related Behaviors 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 43. The Intensity of Culture Shock is Cyclical Anticipation Phase Spectator Phase Increasing Participation Phase Shock Phase Adaptation Phase Anticipation Phase Spectator Phase Increasing Participation Phase Shock Phase Adaptation Phase Highly Engaged Level Moderately Engaged Level Normal Intensity of Emotions Moderately Depressed Level Greatly Depressed Level 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 44. A cultural incident occurs Causing a reaction Which causes a withdrawal Elicits some type of emotion Anxiety Anger Fear Irritation From new culture &amp; language To familiar community Is unexpected Has a different meaning Is offensive 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 45. Culture Shock Cycle Voluntary minorities such as Chinese immigrants to America generally consider education to be an important route to succeeding in society and are less concerned with prejudice and discrimination, as opposed to involuntary minorities such as African Americans and Native Americans. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 46. Cycle of Acculturation Of even more serious long-term impact upon an individual is Deculturation or Marginalization. Deculturation is the loss of connection to the traditional, home or heritage culture and language while not making the transition to the new culture or language. 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 47. What students need Friends to be patient and persevering with them Friends not to take offense at what they say or do Friends to include them despite their odd behavior Time from their teachers Help to learn specific cultural knowledge Patience from their teachers rather than referring them to special services for their culture shock behavior 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 48. Person becomes aware of their reaction Thinks through why they reacted as they did Recognizes that not everyone acts like me A cultural incident occurs Causing a reaction And reflects on the cause so that the reaction subsides Thinks through why the other acts the way he/she does Person observes the situation Person develops appropriate c...</p>

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