# scientific method. look up! youll never know what youll learn

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Scientific Method Slide 2 Look Up! Youll Never Know What Youll Learn Slide 3 Objectives: Topic: Ppt. Lesson on Scientific Methods Do: Write a 2-paragraph (10 sentences) YES!!! 10 sentences of your understanding of the topic. Slide 4 Steps in the Scientific Method Observation Observation Hypothesis Hypothesis Experiment Experiment Data Collection Data Collection Conclusion Conclusion Retest Retest Slide 5 Observations Gathered through your senses Gathered through your senses A scientist notices something in their natural world A scientist notices something in their natural world Slide 6 Observations An example of an observation might be noticing that many salamanders near a pond have curved, not straight, tails An example of an observation might be noticing that many salamanders near a pond have curved, not straight, tails Slide 7 Hypothesis A suggested solution to the problem. A suggested solution to the problem. Must be testable Must be testable Predicts an outcome Predicts an outcome Slide 8 Prediction a form of hypothesis a form of hypothesis Sometimes written as IfThen statements Sometimes written as IfThen statements Ex.: If the dog is panting, then it must be hot outside. Ex.: If the dog is panting, then it must be hot outside. Slide 9 Hypothesis An example of a hypothesis might be that the salamanders have curved tails due to a pollutant in the moist soil where they live. An example of a hypothesis might be that the salamanders have curved tails due to a pollutant in the moist soil where they live. Slide 10 Experiment A procedure to test the hypothesis. A procedure to test the hypothesis. Slide 11 Experiment Variable factor in the experiment that is being tested Slide 12 Experiment A good or valid experiment will only have ONE variable! Slide 13 Scientific Experiments Follow Rules An experimenter changes one factor and observes or measures what happens. Slide 14 The Control Variable The experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not affect the outcome. The experimenter makes a special effort to keep other factors constant so that they will not affect the outcome. Those factors are called control variables. Those factors are called control variables. Slide 15 What is the Purpose of a Control? Controls are NOT being tested Controls are used for COMPARISON Slide 16 Other Variables The factor that is changed is known as the independent variable or manipulated variable. The factor that is measured or observed is called the dependent variable or responding variable. Slide 17 Example of Controls & Variables For example, suppose you want to figure out the fastest route to walk home from school. You will try several different routes and time how long it takes you to get home by each one. Since you are only interested in finding a route that is fastest for you, you will do the walking yourself. Slide 18 What are the Variables in Your Experiment? Varying the route is the independent variable Varying the route is the independent variable The time it takes is the dependent variable The time it takes is the dependent variable Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable. Keeping the same walker throughout makes the walker a control variable. Slide 19 One more thing it is best to make several trials with each independent variable. Slide 20 Remember: To be a Valid Experiment: Two groups are required --- the control & experimental groups There should be only one variable Slide 21 Data Results of the experiment May be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative Slide 22 Data Must be organized Can be organized into charts, tables, or graphs Slide 23 Conclusion The answer to the hypothesis based on the data obtained from the experiment Slide 24 Retest In order to verify the results, experiments must be retested. Slide 25 Review:Solving a Problem 1)Identify a Problem 2) State Observations about the problem 3) Form a Hypothesis about the problem (ifthen) 4) Design an Experiment to test the hypothesis 5) Collect Data 6) Form a Conclusion 7) Retest Slide 26 The End Write a 2-paragraph (10 sentences) YES!!! 10 sentences of your understanding of the topic.

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