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SAMPLING OF WASTES

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  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

    ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 1

    1 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of WastesSampling of Wastes

    Institute of Waste Management

    Erwin Binner MSc.Erwin Binner MSc.BOKUBOKU--UniversityUniversity / Vienna/ Vienna

    Institute of Waste ManagementInstitute of Waste Management

    Marion Huber-HumerGudrun Obersteiner

    Maxim AkhmadievPeter BeiglErwin BinnerMarlies HradGnther KrausPeter LechnerSabine LenzPeter MostbauerFlorian PartAlexandra Pukhnyuk Roland RamuschStefan SalhoferSilvia ScherhauferElisabeth SchmiedFelicitas SchneiderMargarete StaudnerBenjamin Steuer

    Nina DegischerThomas EbnerReinhold OttnerZorica Stamenkovic

    Anna HappenhoferChristian HochhauerAleksander JandricJulia Zeilinger

    2 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Outlook

    Sampling of Wastes Inhomogeneity Representative Sample Sampling Plan Material Properties Increment Samples (number and amount) Mixed Sample (amount) Analyses of Water Content

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

    ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 2

    3 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of Wastes

    wastes in most cases arevery inhomogeneous

    particle size water content content of hazardous compounds

    the problem is to get a the problem is to get a representative samplerepresentative sample

    4 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of WastesMunicipal Solid Wastes (MSW) - Delivery

    photo: Erwin Binner

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

    ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 3

    5 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of WastesMunicipal Solid Wastes (MSW) - Delivery

    photo: Binner, 2008

    6 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of Wastes Biowaste Delivery

    photo: Binner, 2008

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

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    7 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of Wastes Biowaste Compost

    photo: Binner, 2010

    8 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of Wastes Wastes from Abandoned Sites

    photo: ABF-BOKU

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

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    Sampling of WastesSampling Plan

    first we need a sampling plan (concept): goal of investigation (why?) which parameters do we have to analyse?

    - needed sample amount- adequate pre-treatment and stabilisation of

    samples knowledge about properties of waste

    - homogeneity- bulk density- maximum grain size, grain size distribution

    10 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of WastesSampling Plan

    first we need a sampling plan (concept): how to do sampling?

    - location and date of sampling- proper tools for sampling

    execution of sampling- journal of sampling (note important items)- taking sub-samples- mixing sub samples to field sample- laboratory sample- retain sample

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

    ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 6

    11 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    number of increments: very important- an increment sample is part of the population by

    which via statistic data a characterisation of the population shall be done.compromise between accuracy and effort

    - every element of population has to have the same chance to become part of the sample

    Sampling of WastesSampling Plan Number of Increments

    the less the homogeneity, the larger the number of increment samplescalculation of number by statistical criteriachoose of increments by chance (luck)

    12 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Statistic Procedure: -NORM EN 14899 Increment Size (Amount/Volume)

    395

    8395

    9 107.2)3(10 DDMinc Minc minimum amount for increments, in kgD95 max. grain size (95-Percentil), in mm (MBT 10 to 60) bulk density of waste, in kg/m3 (MBT ~ 700)

    for D95 > 3mm

    6 l3.5 l2.0 l1.0 l0.2 l0.05 lvolume of increment

    4.1 kg2.4 kg1.2 kg0.5 kg0.15 kg0.02 kgamount of increment

    60 mm50 mm40 mm30 mm20 mm10 mmmax. grain size (MBT)

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

    ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 7

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    Sampling of Wastes / Example MBT Wastes Increment Size (Amount/Volume)

    5.1 l4.3 l3.4 l2.6 l1.7 l0.9 lvolume of increment

    3.6 kg3.0 kg2.4 kg1.8 kg1.2 kg0.6 kgamount of increment

    60 mm50 mm40 mm30 mm20 mm10 mmmax. grain size (MBT)

    Minc minimum amount of increment, in kg

    max. grain size, in mm

    Minc = 0.06 x max. grain size

    approximation:

    14 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Statistic Procedure: -NORM EN 14899 Increment Sample Mixed Sample

    Increment 1

    Increment 2

    Increment 3

    Increment 4

    Increment 5Increment 6

    Mixed Sample

    photo: Erwin Binner

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

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    Statistic Procedure: -NORM EN 14899 Sample Size (Amount) for Mixed Sample

    94 l54 l43 l11.5 l3.5 l0.5 lvolume of sample

    66 kg38 kg30 kg8 kg2.4 kg0.3 kgamount of sample

    60 mm50 mm40 mm30 mm20 mm10 mmmax. grain size (MBT)

    pCVpgDM sam

    2395 )1()(61

    Msam minimum amount for sample, in gD95 max. grain size (95-Percentil), in cm density of particles, in g/cm3 g factor for grain size distributionp m/m percentage of particles with defined characteristicCV wanted coefficient of variation

    16 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of WastesSample Size (Amount/Volume)

    0.30.40.50.60.70.8density (kg/l) 1)

    800 l450 l240 l100 l43 l15 lvolume of sample

    240 kg180 kg120 kg60 kg30 kg12 kgamount of sample

    400 mm300 mm200 mm100 mm50 mm20 mmmax. grain size

    Ms minimum amount of sample, in kgmax. grain size, in mm

    Ms = 0.6 x max. grain sizeapproximation for MSW:

    1) very rough estimation!!

    10 increments

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

    ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 9

    17 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of Wastes Particle Size Reduction - Shredding

    shredding of wet samples:

    ~ 10,000 photo: Binner, 2004

    18 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    mix all the increments and build a cone divide the cone into 4 similar parts throw awaythrow away

    2 parts (1+3)2 parts (1+3) mix the other

    two parts(2+4) carefully

    divide again into4 similar parts

    throw away 2 partsthrow away 2 parts mix the other two parts carefully repeat as often as necessary

    Sampling of WastesConing and Quartering Procedure

    coning and quartering procedure:

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

    ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 10

    19 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling of WastesConing and Quartering Procedure

    photo: ABF-BOKU

    20 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Analysis of Analysis of Water ContentWater Content

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

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    Sampling of WastesSubsample for Analyses (Amount)

    24 kg18 kg12 kg6.0 kg3.0 kg1.2 kgamount of sample

    400 mm300 mm200 mm100 mm50 mm20 mmmax. grain size

    Ms minimum amount of sample, in kgmax. grain size, in mm

    Ms = 0.06 x max. grain sizeapproximation for MSW:

    120 kg sample to laboratory

    22 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Analysis of WastesWater Content

    Water Content (WC)Fresh Laboratory Sample (< 20 mm)500 - 1,000 g (balance accurate to 0.1 g)drying at 105 C until weight is constant (24 - 48 hours)weighing again (warm, because material catches water from atmosphere)

    100 * (weight 100 * (weight wetwet weight weight drydry))weight weight wetwet

    WC [% WM] =WC [% WM] =

    result in: % WM (wet matter) accuracy: 1 decimal place (e.g. 25.4 %WM)repetitions: 2 allowed difference: + 2.5 %

    200 mm2 x 6 kg!

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

    ABF-BOKU / Erwin Binner page 12

    23 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Analysis of WastesWater Content

    Balance BA 160B~ 2,300

    photo: Binner, 2011

    24 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Analysis of WastesWater Content

    Memmert UML 800 ~ 3,500

    Memmert UM 600 ~ 1,600

    photo: Binner, 2011

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

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    Analysis of WastesWater Content

    26 Erwin Binner La Molina 2015

    Sampling and Pretreatment of Wastes Conclusions

    sampling concept goal of investigation, parameters, location, time,

    needed equipment, information about waste (max. grain size resp. its

    distribution, homogeneity, physical requirements)

    calculation of minimum sample amounts, number of increment samples, number of qualified mixed samples, number and amount of laboratory sample

    sample stabilisation (cooling 4C, freezing -20C)

  • IV Congreso Residuos Slidos Sampling of Wastes September 2015

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    Sampling and Pretreatment of Wastes Conclusions

    sample pretreatment which parameters should be analysed stabilisation of samples

    drying, cooling 4C, freezing -20C

    drying t

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