questions 1-4. detoxifying wastes bioremediation microorganisms break down wastes...
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Detoxifying WastesBioremediationMicroorganisms break down wastesPhytoremediationRemoval of wastes from the soil
Argument for biodiversityEcosystem function, role, food web, food chainFuture meds, foodsEconomic potential, ecotourismAesthetic valueMinimize the spread of diseases
why has biodiversity decreased Loss of food resourcesFood web disruptionFragmentation Introduction of a invasive speciesWaterlog/salinization Over grazing
Laws of thermodynamicsFirst law Energy can neither created nor destroyed, but you may change from one form to another When energy is changed from one form to another, some of the energy is degraded to a lower-quality, more dispersed energy formNo reaction can be 100% efficientAll reactions lose energy (usually as heat)Systems only go spontaneously in the direction of decreasing order (increasing entropy)
Air pollutants Sulfur OxidesCarbon OxidesParticulatesHydrocarbons (VOCs)Nitrogen OxidesPhotochemical Oxidants - OzoneLeadRadonIndoor list see page 12 and 13 of 2001 scoring guidelines 25-28
Acid rainSome Effects on Aquatic Life:aquatic ecosystems are the ultimate repository for various air pollutants;in particular high acidity (low pH) can leach harmful minerals such as aluminum into the environment, kill fish & other organisms, inhibit reproduction, disrupt food chains, & decrease productivity;Some Effects on Property:air pollutants cause billions of dollars of damage to various materials (e.g., damage to buildings in U.S. estimated at $5 billion annually);breaks down paints on cars and buildings, deteriorates roofing, etches stained glass windows, dissolves & discolors marble
NEPAIt is an Oversight board that looks at every major federal project and asses the environmental impact that project might have.31
extinctionSee question a 3, 2000 Habitat alterationUrban sprawlFragmentationMonoculture PoachingInvasive speciesSpecialized feedingRequires a large territoryFixed migration Feeds high on the trophic level, biomagnification Limited range of tolerance K strategist
Endangered or threaten Giant pandaElephant Whooping craneManateeCondorBald eagle
Selective CuttingFigure 23-14aPage 603
Shelterwood CuttingCut 1Cut 2Figure 23-14bPage 603
Seed-Tree CuttingFigure 23-14cPage 603
Clear-CuttingFigure 23-14dPage 603
Strip CuttingUncutCutCutCutUncut610 years ago35 years ago1 year agoFigure 23-14ePage 603
Pop transition 36-38
Global warmingCO2, CFCs, methane (CH4) Ozone, nitrous oxide (N2O)Shift of habitat to higher latitudesShift of habitat to higher elevationsPotential large loss of biodiversity
Global warming TemperatureSea levelFood ProductionEarths AlbedoWeather/ClimateHuman healthBiodiversity
Soil management Contour plowingplowing across the field instead of up and downStrip farmingplanting different types of crops in rows (only one is harvested and other maintains soilTerracingshaping land to make flat shelves to hold waterAlley croppinga form of intercropping where trees that can provide shade and nutrients for crops
desertificationThings leading to desertificationovergrazing of rangelandsdeforestationsurface miningsoil compactionsalt buildup and waterlogging
3. Carbon Cycle Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITPRole of Carbon?building block of organic molecules (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, & nucleic acid) essential to life; currency of energy exchange chemical energy for life stored as bonds in organic compounds;carbon dioxide (CO2) greenhouse gas traps heat near Earth's surface & plays a key role as "nature's thermostat".
Carbon Cycle Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITPHow is Carbon Cycled?Fig. 55Carbon cycling between the atmosphere & terrestrial ecosystems.
Nitrogen Cycle Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITPHow is Nitrogen Cycled?Fig. 56
Carbon Cycle Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITPFig. 55Humans now play a major role in the carbon cycle through burning of fossil fuels. Natural inputs include volcanoes & wildfires.
Carbon Cycle Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITPmain processes:movement in atmosphere: atmospheric C as CO2 (0.036% of troposphere);primary production: photosynthesis (= carbon fixation) moves C from atmosphere to organic molecules in organisms;movement through food web: C movement in organic form from organism to organism;aerobic respiration: organic molecules broken down to release CO2 back to atmosphere;combustion: organic molecules broken by burning down to release CO2 back to atmosphere;dissolving in oceans: C enters as to form carbonate (CO32) & bicarbonate (HCO3);movement to sediments: C enters sediments, primarily as calcium carbonate (CaCO3);
Phosphorus Cycle Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITPmain processes:weathering: P slowly released from rock or soil minerals as phosphate (P043-), which dissolves in H20 & is readily leached;uptake: by plants to form organic phosphates;movement through food web: nucleic acids (including DNA & ATP), certain fats in cell membranes (phospholipids), bones/teeth/shells (calciumphosphate);break down of organic forms: to phosphate (P043-) by decomposers;leaching: P043- from soil;burial in ocean sediments: not cycled in short time scale, only over geologic time;
Groundwater system: termszone of aerationzone of saturationwater tableaquifers (confined and unconfined)recharge areas/zonesartesian wellsinfiltration groundwater
Depleting Groundwater51% of fresh water for use in U.S.In many places, the water is being withdrawn faster than it is being replaced (Overdraft)Overdraft causes the water table to fall and wells to dry upAquifers can take thousands of years to recharge - nonrenewable resource
Effects of Overdraft: Saltwater IntrusionSalt water is more dense than fresh waterA continual supply of fresh water forces back salt waterWhen fresh water is reduced, salt water can intrude into aquifer
Groundwater suppliesConsequences:aquifer depletionaquifer subsidence land sinks when water is withdrawnsaltwater intrusionGroundwater in the U.S. is being withdrawn at about four times its replacement rateFig. 1316 Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
Supplying More WaterUsing water efficientlyincrease efficiency of irrigationdrip irrigation, centralpivot, computer monitoringuse recycled watertreat gray water from showers, washing machines for reusefix leaky pipeswatersaving toilets, faucets, & shower headsxeriscapingplant droughttolerant vegetation in residential communities located in arid & semiarid areas Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
Factors Increasing Water Supplies: Changing the flow of waterAquaductsMoving water from places that have an abundance to placed that have a scarcity
Southern California gets its water from Northern California and the Colorado River
Factors Increasing Water Supplies: Changing the flow of waterProviding water for people and agriculture in Southern California has had dire consequences for Mono Lake
Factors Increasing Water Supplies: Changing the flow of waterDamsDams make water more available to places where the rainfall is highly seasonable (ex. Egypt)Dams have bad environ-mental consequencesBuilt up of siltevaporationYangtze River
4. Supplying More WaterDams & ReservoirsFig. 1310 Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITP
3. Recycling See question 2 2000 Brooks/Cole Publishing Company / ITPRecycling involves various kinds of reuse of materials.composting is a type of recycling in which organic materials are broken down by microorganisms to produce a humus-like material that can be used to condition soils;primary recycling (=closedloop recycling) involves reusing materials, such as glass, metals, paper, & plastics, to produce materials of the same type (e.g., newspaper to make newspaper & aluminum cans to make aluminum cans);secondary recycling (=openloop recycling) involves using waste materials to produce different products (e.g., glass bottles to produce aggregate for use in road construction).