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  • Slide 1
  • Slide 2
  • Routes of Drug Administration
  • Slide 3
  • OBJECTIVES: 1. Know the different Routes of Drug Administration 2. Differentiate between Enteral and Parenteral Drug Administration 3. Know the Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Routes of Drug Administration
  • Slide 4
  • CHANNELS OF DRUG ADMINISTRATION ENTERALPARENTERALTOPICAL
  • Slide 5
  • ENTERALORALRECTALBUCCALSUBLINGUAL
  • Slide 6
  • ORAL ROUTE
  • Slide 7
  • ORAL Advantages Convenient Absorption Cheap
  • Slide 8
  • ORAL Disadvantages Sometimes inefficient Irritation to gastric mucosa destruction of drugs by gastric acid and digestive juices effect too slow for emergencies unpleasant taste of some drugs unable to use in unconscious patient
  • Slide 9
  • First-pass Effect
  • Slide 10
  • Oral Dosage Forms oral administration tablets capsules liquids solutions suspensions syrups elixirs
  • Slide 11
  • SUBLINGUAL ROUTE
  • Slide 12
  • ADVANTAGES ECONOMICAL QUICK TERMINATION FIRST-PASS AVOIDED DRUG ABSORPTION IS QUICK DISADVANTAGES UNPALATABLE & BITTER DRUGS IRRITATION OF ORAL MUCOSA LARGE QUANTITIES NOT GIVEN FEW DRUGS ARE ABSORBED 11
  • Slide 13
  • BUCCAL ROUTE
  • Slide 14
  • ADVANTAGES Avoid first pass effect Rapid absorption Drug stability DISADVANTAGES Inconvenience advantages lost if swallowed Small dose limit
  • Slide 15
  • RECTAL ROUTE ADVANTAGES USED IN CHILDREN LITTLE OR NO FIRST PASS EFFECT USED IN VOMITING/UNCONSCIOUS HIGHER CONCENTRATIONS RAPIDLY ACHIEVED DISADVANTAGES INCONVENIENT ABSORPTION IS SLOW AND ERRATIC IRRITATION OR INFLAMMATION OF RECTAL MUCOSA CAN OCCUR 14 By Suppository or Enema E.g. aspirin, theophylline, chlorpromazine
  • Slide 16
  • SYSTEMIC-PARENTERAL
  • Slide 17
  • INJECTABLES I. INTRAVENOUS II.INTRAMUSCULAR III.SUBCUTANEOUS IV.INTRA-ARTERIAL V.INTRA-ARTICULAR VI.INTRATHECAL VII.INTRADERMAL INHALATION - Absorption through the lungs 16
  • Slide 18
  • INTRAVENOUS ADVANTAGES BIOAVAILABILITY 100% DESIRED BLOOD CONCENTRATIONS ACHIEVED LARGE QUANTITIES VOMITING & DIARRHEA EMERGENCY SITUATIONS FIRST PASS AVOIDED GASTRIC MANUPALATION AVOIDED DISADVANTAGES IRRITATION & CELLULITIS THROMBOPHELEBITIS REPEATED INJECTIONS NOT ALWAYS FEASIBLE LESS SAFE TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE REQUIRED DANGER OF INFECTION EXPENSIVE LESS CONVENIENT AND PAINFUL 17
  • Slide 19
  • INTRAMUSULAR ROUTE ADVANTAGES ABSORPTION REASONABLY UNIFORM RAPID ONSET OF ACTION MILD IRRITANTS CAN BE GIVEN FIRST PASS AVOIDED GASTRIC FACTORS CAN BE AVOIDED DISADVANTAGES ONLY UPTO 10ML DRUG GIVEN LOCAL PAIN AND ABCESS EXPENSIVE INFECTION NERVE DAMAGE 18
  • Slide 20
  • SUBCUTANEOUS
  • Slide 21
  • INTRA-ARTERIAL Rarely used Anticancer drugs are given for localized effects Drugs used for diagnosis of peripheral vascular diseases
  • Slide 22
  • INTRA-ARTICULAR
  • Slide 23
  • INTRADERMAL
  • Slide 24
  • Topical Routes of Administration Topical administration Includes administration of drugs to any mucous membrane eye vagina nose urethra ears colon lungs
  • Slide 25
  • Topical Dosage Forms Dose forms for topical administration include: Skin: creams ointments lotions gels transdermal patches disks Eye or ear: solutions suspensions ointments Nose and lungs: sprays and powders
  • Slide 26
  • Advantages and Disadvantages of the Topical Route Local therapeutic effects Not well absorbed into the deeper layers of the skin or mucous membrane Transdermal route offers steady level of drug in the system
  • Slide 27
  • Transdermal
  • Slide 28
  • SELECTION OF ROUTE The ROA is determined by : the physical characteristics of the drug the speed which the drug is absorbed and/ or released the need to bypass hepatic metabolism to achieve high conc. at particular sites Accuracy of dosage Condition of the patient
  • Slide 29

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